The Arēsd Language: a short grammar

The Arēsds are now masters of the Steppe (raskalbhas in Salanjan) which formerly was part of the Drydic Kingdom.

Sounds[1]

Bilabial alveolar palato-alveolar velar labio-velar

Stop p b8 t d8 č ǰ k g* kw g*w

Stop Aspirated ph b8h th d8h - - kh g*h kwh g*wh

Nasal - m - n

Fricative - - s z

Lateral - hl l

Approximant - hr r

 

Vowels:

Semivowels:

w and j

 

Morphology

Sg Pl

Nominative -s -aǰas

Genitive -εn

Accusative -ōzεn -ōz

Dative (lacking) -n

 

Adjectives

Adjectives take the suffixial articles for the noun, and agree in case and declension class with their head noun, and proceed the noun in all instances. Comparative and Superlative are carried out analytically, with εnak-'more' and ihrεhl-'most'.

 

Pronouns

Sg Pl Sg. Pl.

1st Person Suffixial Definite Article

 

Nom. malə nōs -ənə

Gen. maεn ī -mai -ənī

Acc. mōzən nōz -ōz nən

Dat. mələn nōə_n -ələn -ənōz

 

2nd Person Sg. Pl. Sg. Pl.

Suffixial Definite Article

Nom. sās kās -əsə -əkə

Gen. sāεn kāī -sεn -əkī

Acc. sāŭzən kāz -sōz -əkāz

Dat. sāən kāə_n -əsān -əkən

 

3rd Person

Sg Pl Sg. Pl.

Nom. tās tāŭ -ətə -ətəŭ

Gen. tāεn tāī -ətεn -ətī

Acc. tāŭzən tāz -ətōzn -ətōz

Dat. n tāə_n -ətən -ətəin

 

 

Verbal Conjugation

Moods:

1.a.-ū- indicative

b.-ī- indicative

2.a.-ō- subjunctive

b.-ō- subjunctive (originally the 2nd conjugation subjunctive ending was *ē, but was reformed to ō when ē began to merge with ī.)

3. a.-ā-conditional

b.-ε-conditional

Tenses:

1. Present -V-

2. Past -zV-

3. Future -εkV-

 

Personal Endings:

Sg Pl

1st -n (<*m) -san

2nd -s -hlaz

3rd -t -nči (<*nti<*nte1)

4th -ōĵŏ

 

The 4th personal ending is for the impersonal construction; if number is not known, the plural is used.

 

Infinitive:

-Vd8h

Moods:

1.Subjunctive: (may) used when expressing doubt, exhortation (Hortatory, or a lesser force than the imperative, the Arabic & Salanjan Jussive), or futurity.

2. Conditional: (might, could, should, would) used when expressing a wish or desire; also in result clauses.

Present Participle:

1.      stem + -s.

Past Participle:

1.stem+-zV-+-s.

Gerund: (based on a Drydo-Kerinid Aorist *-e1l-)

1.      stem +-el-+-V-+-s.

Verb Affixes:

 

 

Syntax

The unmarked word order is V(S)O, but relative clauses show extremely large occurrences of VOS, SVO, and OVS (the last being the most common of these).

Dative

b8hēīg*-zūs phέtrōz-ətən

<strike(pret. 2nd sg) Peter(Acc. sg.-Dat. sg. 3rd encl.)>

You struck at Peter.

The above example shows one example of the Dative case's uses: Dative of direction. A verb which requires an object that is to be hit (strike, hit, slash, launch an attack, etc.); they generally tend to be intransitive.

 

Subjunctive

rεrέg*-jut sjεniăs čalo rεg*-sk-ēōzεn-ətōzn

<rule(pret subj. 3rd sg.) εnai (Nom. sg.) if king (Acc. sg- 3rd sg. Acc)

ohr pl-zεt

not kill(pret. cond. 3rd sg.)>

enai might have ruled if he had not killed the king.

The first clause of this phrase is an example of the Subjunctive's use in an independent sentence.

 

Conditional

rεrέg*-jut sjεniăs čalo rεg*-isk-ēōzεn-ətōzn

<rule(pret subj. 3rd sg.) εnai (Nom. sg.) if king (Acc. sg- 3rd sg. Acc)

ohr pl-zεt

not kill(pret. cond. 3rd sg.)>

enai might have ruled had he not killed the king.

The wording used in the English translation is not possible in Arēsd, because any subordinate clause, be it relative, result, an indirect discourse clause, or the subordinate clause within a conditional sentence must have some antacedent in the preceeding clause.

 

Lexicon

The citation form is the Nominative form and the Genitive form. The placement of stress is fairly regular, on the final non-inflectional syllable for nouns and verbs; for polysyllables, the second syllable is stressed unless a voiceless lenis consonant is present, in which case stress is placed on the initial syllable. Where stress is irregular, it is indicated by an acute accent.

Note::- k represents a voiceless fortis velar stop [k], g a voiceless lenis velar stop [g*], etc.

mn-ă-s-tree (ă-stem)

b8hēīg*-ūd8h-to strike

b8hīb8hr-ō-s-beaver (o-stem)

čalo-if (+ cond.)

g* whεrd8-ă-s-needle (ă-stem)

g* whεrd8ī-mn-ă-s-pine tree

mīm-īd8h-to sleep

phεtər-ō-s-Peter (o-stem)

rεg*-sk-ē-s-king (/rule/+ -isk- agentive)

rεg*-īd8h-to rule (forms preterit with reduplication)

sjalmar-s-paradise (r-stem) {from alimar, the legendary paradise of aol.}

sjεnī-ă-s- εnai, a personal name, and a certain chief, who was so ambitious as to attempt to unite the Arēsd tribes, in which he failed, and he also killed the cerimonial king.

 



[1] In the standard dialect of Arēsd, all voiced stop/affricate symbols stand for voicless lenes articulated stops; this issue is treated in full in the variation section.