Darač is one of the last of the Prae-Insular family. They supply most of the substratum for the Insular languages.


Bilabial Lab-Dental Alveolar Palatal Velar

Stop p ph b t th d k kh g

Fricative f v s zw z w x Zw Z

Affricate č čh ĵ

Nasal m n ň ŋ



č@, il-εs-j nakhpif zwr stnu/ č@, il-nakhpif-εs-j zwr stnu

You! Even though youll probably screw it up, I want you to cut down the tall tree and send it to the miller.


#il- wish/desiderative; used to note a polite order

-εs- causative; as an order with #il-, denotes get it done, goddammit! it also pertains to the miller, because the speaker is telling the person to have the tall tree sent to the miller, not take it to the miller. If the speaker wishes to tell the person politely to cut the tree and send it to the miller, the causative must be prefixed to its (main) object, e.g., č, il-j nakhpif zwr εstnu (note that the Vocative is also removed)

-j emphatic clitic

-kh impersonal clitic: il-kh nakhpif zwr stnu Will someone please cut down the tall tree and take it to the miller!?, WISH(impers) CUT DOWN(fut.trans.) TREE(Abs.) Miller(Dat.)

-po conditional clitic

-gu- durative (<*gun always) (increasingly used as a present time marker)

-ti- perfective marker

-pi- future marker

-wa- subordinate marker (tense is not marked in subordinate verbs)

V-f marks agreement with an object in r

V-l marks no object

mεn die (is a purely patient-verb; with an Agent, ): mεngul naq-r people die <die(dur-obj) people(Abs)>

jεkh do (<*jə-kh help-impers., as /ə/ cannot be used in roots)

fεsik road jεkhpi fεsikr to travel (<fεs go + obsolete -ik future marker)

fεs go

nakh- cut down

zw tall tree (the cluster ŋr is unacceptable)

sten miller

č, you (sg)


N-r Absolutive marker (perhaps a better is Patentive)

N-v@ Vocative; the Vocative plural is used of Pronouns to indicate respect; in the singular, to show contempt (Even though youll probably screw it up, ).

N-z Ergative marker

N-u Dative marker

N-p Instrumental/Agent marker


(Is there really a difference of Sg~Pl here? Or are you just blowing shit?)