Drūl

The Drūl are a mountain people, inhabiting the Čantai Mountains, as they have for millenia, even before the Salanjans came to the Rhghl Valley. They use a cursive script, derived from the Čal syllabary. They are extremely close to the Daralec (linguistically speaking), which is suprising, given the massive timescale seperating them, something on the order of 15,000 years.

The Drūl consonants are:

Bialbial Dental pal-alv velar

Stop ph th čh ĵ kh

Nasal m n - - ŋ

Fricative f v s z x γ

Lateral - - l

Approximant - - r

 

Vowels:

All voiced plosive symbols stand for phonetic Implosivesimplosives, except before nasals.

Schwa exists, but is not used in any words in this lexicon, and is represented by when it does appear.

Semivowels:
j w

 

 

Morphology

The Drūl language is a simple agglutinative language with a very limited lexicon, as they do not have much variation in their lives. Their cases and usages are as follows:

Case

Singular

Plural

Nominative (intransitive subject; transitive object)

-

-(ū)s

Genitive

-al[1]

-(ū)szal1

Accusative (transitive object; intransitive subject)

-ūth

-(ū)szūth

Comitative (Instrument)

l1l

-(ū)szūl1

Locative (place where/to/from/at)

-ax

-(ū)szax

Essive (function preformed)

-(ū)szē

 

Daralec verbs are extremely simple. Just past, present, future, (im)perfective.

Person

Singular

Plural

1st

-aj

-j

2nd

-(a)kh

-ol

3rd

-ei

Past -ik-

Subjunctive (if): -ūū-

Present Participle: ju-

Future -ūp-

Infinitive: -uox

Past Participle: -ajr-[2]

Imperfective -ĵil-

Perfective hir-

Causative: V-

The subjunctive is used much more often than in Daralec. There is a infinitive.

 

Examples: /dūŋkūl ilī for/

<good thou ?>

How are you?

/xorbūlxorūlhir-ikh-ekh ilī mukhūlūth for/

<hunt-perf-past-2nd-sg thou mukūl-Acc. ?>

Did you hunt the mukal?

/ūū būnūsthiūs for/

<Subjun. Gods ?>

If the Gods are willing.

 

 

 

Syntax

Despite the names of the Verbal cases, namely Nominative and Accusative, the Daraūleœ is an Ergative language, and these cases would be better named as Ergative and Absolutive. The Darūaleœ and Fanai languages also show this patterning, and the Ēgitan languages are, for the most part, also Ergative languages.

 

 

 

Lexicon

Nouns are in their nominative singular form, and verbs are in their 1st person sg present.

There is no to be. Sentences which would use it in English simply have no verb. The language does not use imperatives. Relative clauses are separate sentences. Adjectives agree with their nouns in case and number. The sentence order is usually SVO?,? standing for for, which indicates a question.

 

 

-buzzard

ūln?or -a small squat, green plant w/small yellow flowers. C.20cm tall.

ūfũŋ- a large coniferous tree about 2m in height, with flaky bark; the branches curl upwards almost like a snake. Grows on the edges of the Daraleœ desert.

ũzogo-a desert version of the Great Cats of Earth, inhabits the Daraleœ Desert

ŋũt-fox

busudun-uox-sleep

duŋkhul-good (adj)

dūrūlaķi-the Daraleœs name for themselves. (spoken /drūl/)

dūrūn-plateau

ĵ

ivu-boar

ā-wolf

 

ambuvu-horse

aumbi-crow

fũnond-uox-jump

for-used to indicate a question

gūnūlūnūl, (pl.) gūnūlūs-he, she, it, they

gni-lizard

borom-mountain ()

xan, (pl.) xanas-I, we (rarely used) (from PDD *ḥan-, I/we)

xorbūl-uox-hunt

ilī, (pl.) ilīs-thou, you

imŋkh-caribou

is-prefix great(used in epithets)

j/anast-uox-walk

jizaŋga-harrier

čhūsarfuol-uox-see

čhū-spear

būnūsthi-the Daraleœs god. They are a monothiestic people, and do not sacrifice.

bũnth-coyote

khūrnūlasth -a stone ampitheater, common in the badlands of the Daraleœ Desert

lūkhũm-glide

mũlampi-buffalo

mbiŋkus-uox-drinking

mukūl-a small desert rodent (form borrowed by Highland Drēīn, Lan, as opposed to

Daraleœ mukl)

ndikb-eagle

ndonda-ferret

nthũvaku-lion

ŋkusa-mouse

ŋgiŋgundu-cougar

ŋgũfed- wolverine-like creature of the mountains

ŋgsivu-wren

ŋmp-beaver

ŋgo-bison

ŋguvvno-dog

obaŋembu-hare

orēodonth-an orēodont adapted to desert life, used as a pack animal when tamed, and also hunted {?related to Salanja orēodont?}

otondofo-deer

oŋgũbeu-moose (Egitic)

kũgũmb-leap

sanačh-uox-(to say) hello (greeting)

sūnūčhūčhī- (to say) goodbye (the ending is actually the Terminative, which has been lost as an aactual case in Drūl.)

ŋkol-and [sũŋ|kl]

uxũŋkũ-kestrel

uŋaŋkhukha-heron

upūzũ-cormorant

unthuxa-a burrowing creature of the desert not unlike the vole

?ūsūlag-the desolation of being in the badlands completely alone

wuguŋkolu-goat

ũvũmb-hawk

womomp-falcon

ēčhn-uox-live

ūŋklū-diving

ŋ-bear

?mphgo-Daralec homeland, which memories of are somehow preserved [/umpwhAo]

av/e-kingfisher

mpus-uox-limp

isa-mule

qaluz- a muskrat-sized creature, but built more along the lines of a desert kangaroo

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

av/e-kingfisher

mpusd-ja-limping

ibsa-mule

qaLuz- a muskrat-sized creature, but built more along the lines of a desert kangaroo

osprey tobombi

otter /qiv

owl umpqe

ox ŋkagi

panther duta

porcupine qushnte

possum baund

pronghorn poal

racoon mpeszu

raven ugŋa

sandpiper ŋd

scampering quq

scouting btma

skunk ampoqe

soaring u

sparrow ntŋgiq

stalking lkeguso

strike ntbu

swallow oŋgijo

swift pambeŋge

thrush ndGit

vulture uzeGe

watching saŋki

wildcat lushu

ūŋgo

jũlŋgu

nūjusux

ŋkhiūkhi

gũjũn

ŋmbisīx

sūx

ximphjoxu

gozi

ŋigu

ndigũ

jũpū

 

?āūluũ~mŋ

ūndukhū

luŋkhu

i?nthū

ŋkhūkhu

ŋisitu

ugondo



1 syllable-final l is subject to a elison rule, expressable as l# > w#> Xw#.

[2] The in the past participle is a diaresis, marking a non-diphthong.