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Illanī

The Illani language is the main language of the Islands in the Rhghlian Sea, and is part of another branch of the Samerian family; it is one of the Insular tounges, and gives its name to this branch of the family. Ergative patterning is extremely common, which is amazing given that the Proto-Insular/Illanī language, which we have records of from the iffaraxti archives, was most certainly a Nominative-Accusative language. Dialects tend to be varied. The Insular languages have been influenced culturally by Sanskrit and Pāli, and most learned words are from Sanskrit or Pāli.

Sounds

Labial alveolar palato-alveolar palatal velar

Stop ph b th d čh ĵ - - kh g

Nasal m - n

Fricative f v - - ś ź

Liquid - - l/r

 

Morphology

Illani is an ergative language, with postpositions, and SOV word order; some dialects show less verb inflections, as these inflections are clictic pronouns in origin; the tense-signs are adverbial particles which have gained a special meaning. The n[1] of the infinitive is removed, and the signs added. The Ergative system emerged when the verb stems, originally passive participles, were re-analysed as active verb forms. The n of the infinitive is one of the remnants of the noun inflections that were inherited by Proto-Illani from Proto-iffaraxtī, and it marked the object of a clause; this later came to be used as an infinitive by means of the indirect statement clause, which used the verbal nouns.

 

Transitive Verb inflection:

Present Ergative Past Ergative Future Ergative

1 -khəU 1 -kha i 1 -khəU akh

2 -thəU 2 -tha i 2 -thəU akh

3 -phəU 3 -pha i 3 - phəU akh

Present Absolutive Past Absolutive Future Absolutive

1 -gεU 1 -gε 1 -gεU akh

2 -dεU 2 -dε 2 -dεU akh

3 -bεU 3 -bε 3 -bεU akh

 

Intransitive Verb inflection:

Present Absolutive Past Absolutive Future Absolutive

1 -ga 1 -ga 1 -ga akh

2 -da 2 -da 2 -da akh

3 -ba 3 -ba 3 -ba akh

 

Texts

<)εr, fiur-U9aI fača-kha-dε-Un_-i.>

<therefore war(Obl)-Instr walk(1 erg.; 2 Obj.)-dat past(obj) past(erg)>

Therefore, we had walked to you by means of the war.

Lexicon:

The Illanī language has, as a language of culture, the Ancient /saṃskr8ta-/ Sanskrit, and also the Pāli. The ancient Indic study of grammar has survived here, producing the quality grammars of Illanī and her sister languages. The various dialects are named according to their pronounciation of /ś/, namely [s], [S], [], [], [x], and [χ].

 

ph b th d čh ĵ kh g f v ś ź m n r i I e ε a o U u

eśa-island Abs: eźa; Obl:eźε

čhε.in-to be (use of Sanskrit bhū/as is a sign of sophistication; for Transitives, the personal forms are inflected for the Ergative noun of the sentence, while the Illanī subject/object markers are also used; for intransitives, the 3rd person singular (bhavati/asti) is used.)

čhein-to have

fačhan- to walk

faśan- to fish

kha-I\me\we\us (ergative); ga- me\I\us\we (absolutive); -me\us (oblique) (< Prae-Insular *kxa)

Un- postpositional Dative

u9ai- postpositional Instrumental

mIś-general invective (cognate to Drydic nix)

)εr-therefore (1st in its clause)

Iv-postposition in

fIśUr-war Abs: fIźUr; Obl:fIźur

akh-postpositional genitive; also future marker (cognate to PDU *-˘k)

thoi-snake; Abs:doi; Obl: doi

tha-thou (ergative); da- thou\thee (absolutive); - thee (oblique) (<OI *ca < OIns saḥ< P *sə-sĕ, influenced by Prae-Insular *c)

en-postposition on

pha-thou (ergative); ba- thou\thee (absolutive); - thee (oblique) (<OI *φa < OIns pha < Prae-Insular *p)

UoIth-arrow

śai-earth (from Proto-Illani śaλ-oḥ, aol)

thUkh-falcon

mr-famous

oinəthaI-farmer

as-father

eIriU-fighter

aUthaičh-flowering

theim-forest

Iothi-fortunate

khiseU-turtle

Us-battle

meth- bear-like

akheu-bearer of good news

naIś-beloved

khoi-bitter

uan-bless

ikh-brave

geUś-brightness

aiph-chief

thoukh-compassionate

thUg-sword

auI-constant

ouoin-counselor

εam-crown

iUiUth-defender

aiźoi-desired

(d)eUčh-divine (d- is from Sankrit devas)

devas-god; (from Sanskrit deva-, god); devasya vr8kha, wolf god (-asya is the Sanskrit

Genitive; the forms of deva- and other Sanskrit loans are taken from Sanskrit:

deva-: god

Singular

Dual

Plural

Nom (Erg)

devas

devau

devās

Voc

deva

devau

devās

Acc (Erg./Abs.)

devam

devau

devān

Dat (Obl. + Un)

devāya

devābhyām

devebhyas

Abl (Obl)

devāt

devābhyām

devebhyas

Instr (Obl.+u9aI)

devena

devābhyām

devais

Gen (Obl. + akh)

devasya

devayos

devānām

Loc

deve

devayos

deveṣu

vr8kha-wolf (from Proto-Illani wr8ga; cf. Sanskrit vr8ka-, wolf) (an important Illanī god is the wolf hunter, and they borrowed the Sanskrit term for 'wolf' out of deference to this deity)

eum-dweller

InoIkh-eagle



[1] The fact that the Infinitve marker of (a)n is the same as in Drydic is a coincidence, as the Drydic is from the Dative Plural of the present participle, and has lost the s of this plural case-form.