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Kerinidoi

The Kerinid language is one of the major languages of aol. Its descendants, the Alasol languages, are some of the most widely spoken Samerian languages, with few that surpass them. Kerinidoi itself is a highly archaic (outside of nominal morphology) language that has helped greatly to reconstruct the Proto-Samerian language. Kerinidoi is also the official language of the Kerinid Empire, one of the most powerful states on aol.

 

Phonology

 

Developments of vowels and diphthongs from Proto-Drydo-Kerinidoi to Kerinidoi:

PDK

Kerinidoi

examples:

 

*i

i, palatalized previous cons.

*lianū- 'a small, yellow bird'

ĺīanūos 'the same'

*u

u

*tjū- 'to eat'

čūre 'to eat'

*e /ε/, *e1 //

e

*re1g- 'to rule'

regēre 'to rule'

*e2 / /, *o

o

*-os- 'augmentive'

-ōz- 'augmentive'

*a

a

*pamos 'stream, that which used for navigation'

pamos 'street'

*ai

ai

*ais- 'to go'

aizōre 'to go'

*eu

*eu >*y > u

*euti 'if'

uči 'if, that'

*ei

ei

*sein- '-self'

zein- '-self'

*e1u

*eu >*u > u

*

 

*e1i

ei

*

 

*e2u

au (this irregularity shows that the vowel sequence *e2u was a diphthong, not 2 separate vowels)

*

 

*e2i

ai

*

 

*au

o

*-aun- '-ize'

-onn- '-ize'

*ui, *iu

y

*

 

*ou

u

*

 

*oi

oi

*

 

 

Bilabial DentalAlveolar Palatal[1] Velar

Plosive p b - - t d č k g

Spirant f v s z h[x] γ

Nasal[2] m,mm - - n, nn ń, ńń ŋ, ŋŋ

Liquid - - l ĺ

Approximant - - r j

The phonemes /f/ and /v/ are pronounced as [] and [β].

 

The nasal length distinction, of unknown origin, is supported by the following minimal pairs:

m: mm

pamos 'street'

pammos 'circular formation'

n: nn

sejanos 'food'

sejannos '(the act of) eating'

ń: ńń

beińaos 'female goat'

beińńaos 'female (in general)'

ŋ: ŋŋ

ŋauŋ- 'good/well'

ŋauŋŋ-(os) 'condor'

 

Morphology

Sg. Du. Pl.

(An./Neut.) (An./Neut.) (An./Neut.)

Nominative -os/-on -īō-nēs/-na -nēs/-na

Vocative -ik/-- -- --

Genitive -ōm -īōsun -ōsun

Dative -īōfī -fī

Ablative -ūd -yd (<*ī-ud) -fī

Accusative -orom/-on -īōru -oru

Locative -ēn -īōēn -ēn

Allative -ĺe/-lu -īōĺe/-īōlu -vasĺe/-vaslu

Partitive -ta/-tan -īōta/-īōtan -vasta/-vastan

Inessive -a/-an -īōa/-īōan -vaa/-vaan

Adessive -la/-lan -īōla/-īōlan -vasla/-vaslan

Instrumental -īōnī -nī

 

The stem vowel system (which mostly developed into a gender system), evident in Proto-Drydo-Udra, Salor, and Arēsd8 (where the stem vowel and case ending are still seperable), in Kerinidoi has given way to the Animate-Neuter distinction.

Pronouns

1st person

S P

Nominative mŏs nŏēs

Vocative moik

Genitive mōōm nēosun

Dative mou nēfī

Ablative moud nēfī

Accusative mōrom nēoru

Locative moēn nēēn

Allative moĺe nēvasĺe

Partitive mota nēvasta

Inessive moa nēvaa

Adessive mola nēvasla

Instrumental moī nēnī

 

2nd Person

S P

Nominative taos kaēs

Vocative taik ka

Genitive taōm kaōsun

Dative taū kafī

Ablative taūd kafī

Accusative taorom kaoru

Locative taēn kaēn

Allative taĺe kavasĺe

Partitive tata kavasta

Inessive taa kavaa

Adessive tala kavasla

Instrumental tai kanī

 

3rd Person

S P

Nominative sōs sonēs

Vocative soik --

Genitive sōm sōsun

Dative soū sofī

Ablative soūd sofī

Accusative sōrom sōru

Locative sēn soēn

Allative soĺe sovasĺe

Partitive sota sovasta

Inessive soa sovaa

Adessive sola sovasla

Instrumental sonī

 

Demonstratives

proximate: (definite Article)

S P

Nominative am[3]/āt[4] anēs/ana

Genitive ōm ōsun

Dative ū ofī

Ablative ūd ofī

Accusative ōrom/āt ēm/ana

Locative ēn aēn

Allative oĺe/-lu vasĺe/-vaslu

Partitive ata/-tan vasta/-vastan

Inessive aa/-an vaa/-vaan

Adessive ala/-lan vasla/-vaslan

Instrumental ī anī

 

remote:

S P

Nominative jŏs/jŏn jŏnēs/jŏna

Genitive jōm jōsun

Dative jŏfī

Ablative jūd jŏfī

Accusative jōrom/jŏn jŏru

Locative jēn jŏēn

Allative jŏĺe/jŏlu -vasĺe/-vaslu

Partitive jŏta/jŏtan jŏvasta/jŏvastan

Inessive jŏa/jŏan jŏvaa/jŏvaan

Adessive jŏla/jŏlan jŏvasla/jŏvaslan

Instrumental jŏī jŏnī

 

Verbal Inflection

The verbal system of Kerinidoi is a very complex system, with many phonetic reductions, assimilations, many levelings; however, it is a fairly simple system to comprehend in light of its history.

Present system:

Present

Imperfect

Future

Preterit System:

Preterit

Pluperfect

 

Present tense inflections: */-m/ nasalises; */-n/, */-ń/ do not.

Sg. Du. Pl.

 

1st - -j -ĕv (<*Vmĕw<*Vmel ))

2nd -s -js -ts

3rd an. -t -jt -nti

neut -on

Imperfect tense inflections: (*-nv(m)-)

Sg. Pl.

 

1st -nke -nVVĕke

2nd -ns Vs (<*-njVs, the dual form)

3rd an. -nt -nnti

neut -nn

 

Simple Future tense inflections: (Kerinidoi lost the *-e2g)w as the future augment, the forms are borrowed from aol Italic)

Sg. Du. Pl.

 

1st -īb -ībj -ībĕv

2nd -ībs -ībjs -ībts

3rd an. -ībt -ībjt -ībnti

neut -ībton

 

 

Preterit tense inflections: the stem is reduplicated, and the vowel is raised one heighth in PDK; the phonological changes between said and Kerinidoi taking place, thus arriving at the Preterit stem. The Preterit stem is included with all verbs.

Sg. Pl.

 

1st -ĩĕv

2nd -īs -īčs (<*ītj(>/č/)s)

3rd an. -it -īuntī

neut -on

(Note: some verbs take a Preterit augment in -s-, a loan from the aol Italics, ultimately from the Indo-European Aorist formant in *s:

Sg Pl

1st -sĩ -sĩŏv

2nd -īs -sītis (from the Italic Perfect conjugation)

3rdan. -it -sīunti

neut. -on

Pluperfect tense inflections, added to the Preterit stem: (this tense is very rarely used in

spoken Kerinidoi, generally being replaced by as + the Preterit.)

Sg. Pl.

 

1st -īs -ĩĕvs

2nd -īsos -īčsĭs

3rd an. -īsot -īuntīs

neut -īsot

Future Perfect Indicative: (This tense, present in the earliest Kerinidoi texts, has been lost by virtue of the fact that it was one of the most unwieldy forms to be produced; it was formed by attaching the Simple Future endings on to the Pluperfect endings. It has been replaced by as + the Simple Future.)

 

mood derivitation:

1.      -čēn-: causative

prefixes the stem before the present/preterit root. Suspiciously similar to the Salanjan causative in č-.

2.      -kū: imperative

The imperative is attached to the verb stem, and serves as a person inflection. In the Alasol Languages, this has mostly become another infix.

3.      -čēŏ-: volitional

This and the following entry indicate whether or not a person intended to cause an action; they are, in origin, a causative affix (nasal lost) with a further morph *-ŏ(n) accrued to the stem.

4.      -čēŏn-: nonvolitional

5.      -din-: intransitive affix (very wide spread in the Alasol languages)

6.      -fu-: conditional (originally an adverb, now a stem infix). Indicates that the action's happeing is dependent uipon some other factor, which is put in the Partitive; if it is a verb, the verbal noun appropriate to the tense (in the Partitive) with the subject of that participle in the Partitive.

Participles:

1.      ena-os/-on: Present Participle

2.      tŏr-os/-on: Preterit Participle

3.      ībena-os/-on: Future Participle

 

Irregular verbs

ezzērē 'to be'

Present

S P

1 ez-ũ ez-omev

2 ez- ez-ets

3 es-t e-nti

Imperfect

S P

1 esun ezomev

2 ezn ezents

3 ez-n-t e-nnti

Future (in aol Italic, the sequence *zs goes to /r/ [for a parralel, see Lat. *dt >s])

S P

1 erũ eromev

2 er erets

3 ert erti

Preterit

S P

1 vuvēvĩ vuvēvev

2 vuvēvīs vuvēvets

3 vuvēvit vuvēnti

Pluperfect: as + Preterit

 

 

Derivitation

Noun, Adjective, and Verbal augments:

-annos '-like'

-ens-os '-ate'

-ernos '-ness'

-isk-os:agentive suffix

-igureos: agentive suffix

-nos:agentive suffix

-ōz-:augmentive

-ri-:abstraction affix

-wuke '-willed'

 

 

Examples:

ezaizōvit dinēn uči as tītēnōvīuntī

<go(Pret.3rd sg. an.) cloud(Loc.) that (perfective marker) hold (Pret.3rd pl.)

uγetoros am urkarōm usaōm, oikik.

crown (Nom sg.) the(Nom.sg.an.)father (Gen.sg.)eagle(Gen.sg.) emph. part.>

He walked at the clouds that held the eagle's father's crown, he did.

 

 

 

Lexicon

Two of the greatest influences on Kerinidoi are the Hill languages, and the aol Italics.

These Indo-Europeans somehow came to aol (probably with the vlon Kelts), and joined with the Proto-Kerinids, fusing the two languages. The Kerian language shows much more Italic influence. The far-reaching similarities between the Samerian family and the Indo-European family have contributed to this mixing, and it has created much confusion for the comparativists working on the Kerinid languages. Stress placement is on the last non inflectional syllable; for Preterit stems, the Vv- is stressed. 86 words.

adēre 'to fight' (Pret. edadēv-)

ade-nos 'fighter'

agn=orē 'to lead a tribe' (Pret. egagnv-)

agn=iskos'chief'

agn=isk=orē 'to be a chief' (aegn- + -isk- [agentive]+-ore) (Pret. egagniskv-)

aeveorē 'to desire' (Pret. evaevv-)

af(u)retoros 'spear' {from Hill af-rei-tura 'inanimate prefix' + /kill/ + 'person'}

aifeos 'staff (of wood)'

aizōre 'to go; when with Locative of direction, 'walk'' (Pret. ezaizōv-)

akolon 'wealthy'

alasolos- the Alasol river, which is the basis of the Kerinind Empire

ana 'to travel (postposition)' (+ the All.)

aŋejaos 'sound'

arēzĕ- 'non-Hill' (< PDK *areīse1-, 'master')

as 'perfective marker'

beińaos 'female goat'

beińńaos 'female (in general)'

bōn- 'good, well' {aol Italic}(?<Proto-Italic *dvenos? [see aol Italic file, *bōn-])

čīgūre 'to kill' (Pret. čīčīgūv-) (PDK *čīgou-)

čūre 'to eat' (Pret. čūčūv-)

desk- 'wise'

dīnos 'cloud' (singular only) {from Salanjan cloud, pl. dīn}

ediańos'man'

ediań-ore-'manly'

edinna- 'free'

egl-eγos 'warrior'

enaon 'tower'

ena=dīnōm-on 'stronghold' (tower of the clouds)

eŋaon- 'battle'

ens 'so'

esa-nos- 'defender' (esa- defending + -nos -er)

esode-'bitter'

ēzzēre 'to be'{PIE *es-, *bhū-, 'to be'}(irregular; see conjugation for forms)(Pret. vuvēv-)

fambenos 'twin'

farovilon 'stranger'

fauma=men 'bear-er'

gusiańos-'steward'

hābēre 'to have' {aol Italic} (Pret. hēhēbēv-)

hopi-annos-falcon-like (usually treated as if it were *hopianos in the Alasol languages)

ifasaos-'famous' (from *ifasai-s)

ijoes- 'young' CK [ijεs], Alasolic pronounciation [iεs], Gari /js/, Xer /wiU/ET/

ikuos-'noble'

iseńe=igurēos 'counselor' (advice-giver; iseńe advice + -igurēos agentive suffix)

itońik- 'fortunate'

kaŋhirros 'farmer'

keios- 'wind'

kej=annos-'swift' (wind-like) (has only animate forms)

kwerē 'flower' (Pret. kwekev-)

kwin=ore- 'mighty'

lujus=erno- 'bright-ness'

lustos '(a) god' (stem lusti-)

lusti-tor-'divine' (cf. *godded, being like a god)

ĺīanūos 'a small, yellow bird'

ĺiańos-'worthy'

mātērē 'to give birth to, to mother' (+ Dat.) {PIE *māter 'mother'} (Pret. mēmātēv-)

ŋapens-'earnest'

ŋauŋ- 'good/well' (very rare in Classical Kerinidoi, but widespread in Alasol)

ŋauŋŋos 'condor'

ŋeipratura-'dweller' {from Hill ŋeipra-tura 'earth-person'}

ŋufiańos-'constant'

ŋum=annos 'bear-like' (ŋum- 'bear' + -annos similaritive affix)

 

 
oik- 'strong' (used in the vocative, is an emphatic particle)

oik=wuke- 'strong-willed'

ondērē 'to be on earth' (Pret.unondēv- ) (changes to a Proto-Alasol *nidie-)

ońifure 'love' (Pret. uńońifuv-)

ońifu=ri=ens-'compassion-ate' (ońif- love + -ri- abstraction suffix +-ens- -ate; -u- is a intercalcerary vowel, due to a taboo on *-fr-)

orgetoros arrow

pamos 'street'

pammos 'circular formation'

piens-sword

regēre 'to rule' (Pret. reregev-)

reuskatura-strong (from Hill reu-skatura 'stature' + 'great' (<*ska 'king'+ tura

'man/person'); the Hill value height as much as gold)

sampire 'bless' (Pret. sasampiv-)

sarkel 'luckily'

sire- 'beloved'

sejanos 'food'

sejannos '(the act of) eating'

sonsenos 'forest'

tēnōre 'to hold' (Pret. tītēnōv-) (cognate to Latin tenērē, to have/hold)

učī 'if, that'[5]

uγetoros-crown

usaos-eagle

urkaros 'father'

vd-isk-ēre 'to protect' (vid- defend + -isk- agentive ('that which defends') + -ēre) (Pret.

vividiskēv-)

vidńos 'protector'

vikaukiań- 'brave; as animate, brave man'

vof-isk-ēre to be gated' (vof- defend + -isk- agentive + -ēre) (Pret. vuvofiskēv-)

zein- '-self' (reflexive affix attached to personal pronouns)

 



[1] The phonemes /č/ // // // are Palato-Alveolar, the remainder Palatal.

[2] Note:: all nasals are voiced in the same manner as are vowels: non-assimillatory with respect to voicing value.

[3] the a in am was pronounced [], which mostle went to [e] in the Alasol languages.

[4] The āt in the Nominative and Accusative is an irregularity, whose origin is not known.

[5] učī 'that' usually takes the Preterit, because that tense is descended from the Proto-Kerinidoi Optative Preterit.