Lan

Lan is one of the oldest attested Drydo-Udra languages, second only to Old Udra in age. The language itself is very similar to Western Drydic, but glaring differences, such as the intransitive conjugation, Pluperfects/Aorists in as, and the Antilocative case serve to differentiate it widely from that tounge.

Sounds:

i y u

ē o

ă ā

Bilabial lab-dnt. Dental alveolar pal.-alv. palatal[1] velar uvular glottal

Stop p b - - - - t d - - - - k g q - /

Nasal - m - - - - - n - - - - - ŋ

Fricative φ β f v s z - x γ - {h}*

Lateral - - - - - l λ ł

Rhotic - - - - - r

Labialised kw gw

*the phoneme /h/ has two pronounciations: [ћ] before /u/ and after /q/, and [χ] before all others.

 

Morphology

a-stems

sg pl

Nominative -as -āi

Genitive -oj -ālu

Ablative -ād -ūros

Accusative -un -ōs

Dative -ai -ĕnŭs

Antilocative -a -ĕn

Locative -nūs

 

o-stems

sg pl

Nominative -os -az

Genitive -ĕk -ōlu

Ablative -ōd -ūros

Accusative -em -ōs

Dative -ai -ĕnŭs

Antilocative -a -ĕn

Locative -nūs

 

uo-stems

sg pl

Nominative -uos -ijar

Genitive -ĕk -ūlu

Ablative -uod -ūros

Accusative -[2] -ijar

Dative -ai -ĕnŭs

Antilocative -a -ĕn

Locative -nūs

 

i-stems

sg pl

Nominative -s -īj

Genitive -io -ilu

Ablative -īd -ūros

Accusative -im

Dative -ai -ĕnŭs

Antilocative -a -ĕn

Locative -nūs

 

ē-stems

sg pl

Nominative -s -ēj

Genitive -eo -elu

Ablative -ēd -ūros

Accusative -em

Dative -ai -ĕnŭs

Antilocative -a -ĕn

Locative -nūs

 

n-stems

sg pl

Nominative -ns -eins

Genitive -on -ennu/-ellu

Ablative -end -ūros

Accusative -en -ein

Dative -ai -ĕnŭs

Antilocative -a -ĕn

Locative -nūs

 

m-stems

sg pl

Nominative -m -ẽns

Genitive -om -emmu/-ellu

Ablative -end -ūros

Accusative -mem -em

Dative -ai -ĕnŭs

Antilocative -a -ĕn

Locative -nūs

 

r-stems

sg pl

Nominative -r -rēr

Genitive -or -iru

Ablative -rō* -ūros

Accusative -ĕr -rē

Dative -ai -ĕnŭs

Antilocative -a -ĕn

Locative -nūs

* from *-r-ōd > *-rdō > *-drō > -rō

 

l-stems

sg pl

Nominative -u[3] -y

Genitive -iol -ellu

Ablative -dl* -ūros

Accusative -il -īl

Dative -ai -ĕnŭs

Antilocative -a -ĕn

Locative -nūs

*from *-l-d, assimmilated into a acceptable consonant cluster.

 

ū-stems

sg pl

Nominative -us -ūs

Genitive -ūo -ūlu

Ablative -ūd -ūros

Accusative -um -ūs

Dative -ai -ĕnŭs

Antilocative -a -ĕn

Locative -nūs

 

Adjectives

 

Declension 1

Sg Pl

f m n f m n

Nominative -as -os -uos -ai -az -ijar

Genitive -oi -ĕk - -ālū -ōlū -

Accusative -un -ĕm -[4] -ōs -ōs -ijar

Dative -ai - - -ĕnŭs - -

Antilocative -a - - -ĕn - -

Locative - - -nūs - -

 

 

Declension 2

Sg Pl

f m n f m n

Nomimative -s - -en -ai -ūs -ijār

Genitive -io - - -lū - -

Accusative -un -ĕm -uom -ōs -ōs -ijār

Dative -ai - - -ĕnŭs - -

Antilocative -a - - -ĕn - -

Locative - - -nūs - -

 

 

Comparitives

-īnna- plus the following endings:

Sg Pl

f m n f m n

Nomimative -s - -en -ai -ūs -ijār

Genitive -io/-eo - - -lū - -

Accusative -un -ĕm -uom -ōs -ōs -ijār

Dative -ai - - -ĕnŭs - -

Antilocative -a - - -ĕn - -

Locative - - -nūs - -

 

Superlatives

-īrejl- (OL -īrrel-)

Nominative -as -os -uos -ai -az -ijar

Genitive -oi -ĕk - -ālū -ōlū -

Accusative -un -ĕm -4 -ōs -ōs -ijar

Dative -ai - - -ĕnŭs - -

Antilocative -a - - -ĕn - -

Locative - - -nūs - -

 

 

Pronouns

1st Person

Sg. Pl.

Nominative ūla nōs

Genitive mon nōlu

Ablative ml nl

Accusative ūlēm nōis
Dative/Antilocative nōū

Locative nōnŭs

 

2nd Person

Sg. Pl.

Nominative sa kōs

Genitive son kōlu

Ablative sl kl

Accusative sūlēm kōis

Dative kōū

Locative sūī kōnŭs

 

3rd Person (stem *tō-)

Sg. Pl.

f m n f m n

Nominative ta to tai tuī tura

Genitive toi tai - tālu tōlu -

Ablative tl - - tūros

Accusative tun tēm to tōis - tura

Dative/Antilocative tōū - - tĕnŭs - -

Locative - - tn8ŭs - -

 

emphatic pronoun ('he himself'):

Sg Pl

f m n f m n

Nom. las los luos lai luī lura

Gen. loi lēk - lalū lolū -

Abl. lād lōd - ll - -

Acc. lun lem luom lōs lēs lura

Dat. lai - - lents - -

AntL. la - -m len - -

Loc. - - lenūs - -

 

 

Correlative Pronouns

The correlative pronouns are those pronouns that are not personal or emphatic.

(suffix the -el- from the verbal inflection to form that; suffix the other evidentiality infixes to form other grades of demonstratives tī- 'this here', -sī- 'yonder'. Relative clauses can have a participle for the verb, with the mood\tense\person suffixes welded into the pronoun (/pron. stem/-/mood/-/tense/-/person/-/case ending/).

Sg Pl

m/f n m/f n

Nom. or orr orōs orēs

Gen. oror oror olu oralu

Abl. orl orōd orel orl

Dat. orū orī orū orū

Acc. orem orr orēs orēs

Loc. orī orī ornūs ornūs

 

declension of what?:

S P

Nom ĵvẽ ĵvẽ

Gen ĵvẽk ĵvlu

Abl ĵvd ĵvũros

Dat ĵvi ĵvẽnts

Acc ĵvẽm ĵvs

Loc ĵvĩ ĵvnũs

 

correlative table:

who this that some no any all -ever

Adj ĵvas orr orel ttas kras fa-ĵvas xe-ĵvas ĵvasex

Person ĵvas orr orel ttas kras fa-ĵvas xe-ĵvas ĵvasex

Thing ĵvẽ orẽr orẽl kẽtas kẽras fa-ĵvẽ xe-ĵvẽ ĵvẽx

-the following do not decline-

Time ĵva orra orla ktas krs fa-ĵva xe-ĵva ĵvax

Place ĵvĩ orī orelī ttī krī fa-ĵvĩ xe-ĵvī ĵvĩx

Way ĵvdda orōdda orelōdda ttōdda krōdda fa-ĵvōdda xe-ĵvōdda ĵvōddax

Amount ĵvũ orū orelū ttū krū fa-ĵvū xe-ĵvū ĵvūx

Reason ĵvg orog orelog ketg kerg fa-ĵvg xe-ĵvg ĵvgx

 

The forms of 'where', 'how', 'how much', 'why' are, respectively, Locative, Ablative-Instrumental, pronominal Dative, and pronominal Instrumental cases of the pronouns (fa-ĵvẽ, xe-ĵvẽ, orr, orel, ttas, kras, and ĵvẽx. obviously, some trends can be discerned here: a prefix fa- directly translating into English as 'some-', cf. Latin ali(-quis); xe-, with a collective meaning (cf. Salanjan a-), and, as a suffix, shows up in the series for 'PRON-ever', ĵvasex, ĵvosex, ĵvuosex.

 

 

Verbal conjugation

Levels of evidentiality:

1. -- seen by the speaker

2. -ĕl- seen by someone else

3. -- not seen, but probable (in opposition with the optative mood, which it cannot occur with.)

Moods:

1.      -e- indicative

2.      /stem/ imperative

3.      -ā- subjunctive

4.      -ī- optative (in opposition with the 3rd level of evidentiality, which it cannot

occur with.) The infinitival optative is very common in Old and Middle Lan, but has mostly been replaced by the original optative in -ī-.

 

Tenses:

1. -Vĕk- Future Simple

2. -ĕkelīV- Future Perfect

3. -bV- Imperfect

4. -elīV- present Perfect

5. elas-/stem/ Aorist (also formed with reduplication, with vowel height raised one step)

 

Uses:

Tense/Aspect system

Present Past Future

Imperfective Present Imperfect Future

Aoristic (none) Aorist Future

Perfective Perfect Aorist Future Perfect

Narrative system:

Aorist

. | .

| | Pres. Perf.

Aor. Imperf. Pres Future Future Perfect

| | | | |

 

Personal Endings:

Transitive:

Active Middle Passive

sg du pl sg du pl sg du pl

1st -m -su -mūl -mai -swar -mur -mar -swar -mur

2nd -s -tēl -ts -sar -tlar -kwur -sar -tlar -kwur

3rd -t -mkw -ntĕ -tai -mkwur -ntai -tar -mkwur -ntūr

 

Alternate forms for the Medio-passive pardagrims underlined:

sg du pl

1st -- -swai -mēn

2nd -sai -tlai -tsai

3rd - -ŋkai -

 

Intransitive:

 

Active Middle Passive

sg pl sg pl sg pl

1st -i -nī -sui -mī -mir -nīr

2nd -kwū -tlō -tsō -sir -kwuir

3rd -m -ntĕm -ŋkm -ntī -tir -ntīr

 

Infinitives:

Present:

Active: -ans

Middle: -eins

Passive: -ēm

Aorist:

Active: elas-/stem/-ans

Middle: elas-/stem/-eins

Passive: elas-/stem/-ēm

(Plu)perfect:

Active: -elīans

Middle:-elīeins

Passive:-elīēm

Future:

Active: -ekans

Middle: -ekeins

Passive: -ekēm

The Future Perfect infinitive is formed with the Future Infinitive plus the adverb

as.

The Imperfect Infinitive, which is conciously avoided if possible, is constructed

with as + the present infinitive; it is avoided most of the time because of its

extreme ambiguity with the Present Infinitive.

Participles:

Present: /stem/ + -as, -os, -uos.

Perfect: /perf. stem/ + -eras, -eros, -eruos.

Aorist: /aor. stem/ + -(e)lis, -(e)lis, -(e)len (3rd [i-stem] decl.)

Future: /stem/ + -ĕkas, -ĕkos, -ĕkuos

Verbal affixes:

1. ke- negating prefix

 

 

 

dēns: to give (Preterit dd-, future desĕk-, present participle dēntos)

 

Active Middle Passive

sg du pl sg pl sg du pl

1st dēm dēsu dēmūl dzēmi - dēmr dēswr dēmur

2nd dēs dētēl dēts - - dēsr dētlr dēkwur

3rd dēt dēmkw dēntĕ dzēti dzēnti dētr dēmkwur dēntūr

 

Intransitive:

 

Active Middle Passive

sg pl sg pl sg pl

1st dēj dēni dzēsuj dzēmi dēmir dēnir

2nd deu dēkwu dzētlo dzētso dēsir dēkwuir

3rd dēm dēntĕm dzēŋkwm dzēnti dētir dēntir

 

garik, rēkun okulenun, dūr teranijār keakunet ĵvi son.

sleep, girl little, for worries not-does somethingDat yours

'Sleep, little girl, for the troubles of the world are not yours.'

 

Lexicon

the Lan lexicon is heavy with base Drydo-Udra stems, with very few Salanjan borrowings. The forms of Lan are believed to be some of the original words supplanted in Drydic and Udra by Salanjan borrowings (cf. English very (Romance), replacing the Germanic sore). 30 words.

nouns

ăădĕkai, ăădĕkālu, m.: the Aadeks

ageinos, -ĕk, m.: lamb

altosas, altosoi, f.: 'stream-augm.', river

asaqas, -oi, f.: faith

beχĕkeros, -ĕk, f.: life

beras, -os, -uos:white

dēŭĭdizdomas, dēŭĭdizdomoi, f.: temple (plural dēŭĭdīludomāi)

dēŭĭr, dēŭĭdis, m.: god (*dz > r)

kreŭxorr, -or, m.: raw flesh

kruīastorr, -or, m.: Megalania

pāmos, -ĕk, m.: stream; that which is used for navigation

 

pronouns

ula, mon :I

sa, son:thou

tas/tos/tuos : he/she/it

nōs, nōlu : we

kōs, kōlu : you

tai :they

las, loa, luos : he himself, she herself, it itself

ĵvẽ : what?

ĵvas, -os, -uos : who/what

orr, oror : this

orel, orelor : that

 

verbs

aisans/aizans: to go (tr.) (OL pres. Part. łāŋos)

akunans: to do

beχĕkerans: love

burridans: to cut; cannot take intransitive endings

deidikaunans: tr- indicate (w/Loc of Showing); intr- display

deidikosaunans-show, point out (w/Loc of Showing)

degālăstans: attack (give a fight)

dŏkjans:to be

garikans:to sleep

katans: to get: in future, to be about to have

dēns: to give (Preterit dd-, future desĕk-, present participle dēntos)irr

 

adposititons

l-beyond, w/Acc. of distance where

n- at, along, towards; prep w/loc of directional movement

nsrai (prep.)- to deny (w/Abl.)

ntī-against; prep w/abl of Denial

g: instrumental postposition, with the Ablative

: instrumental postposition, with the Ablative

 

 

conjunctions

ču-and

- basic emphatic particle, Ker. oikik, Rus. жэ.

sn- so that (+subj.); in order to (+opt.)

 

 



[1] the digraphs kj and gj represent velar stops [k] and [g] followed by [j], which have developed from earlier palatals [c] and [] through the Western Drydic k9 [kj] and ğ [gj].

[2] the uo-stem accusative singular has various forms: most older texts have uoim, texts from the Middle Udra/Lan period have oim, and the modern language has ūĭm.

[3] The nominatives in u are not from the u-stems, but from a simplified cluster ls, which gives u in Lan. The y of the Plural is from *-ju <*-īu <*-īls, the plural of l-stems.

[4] the uo-stem accusative singular (used for the neuter adjective) has various forms: most older texts have uoim, texts from the Middle Udra/Lan period have oim, and the modern language has ūĭm.