Proto-Drydo-Kerinidoi SteppeMoragravēs

 

Phonology

phonological explanation

* /E /

*1 / /

* /a / *2 / /

 

developments of vowels and diphthongs:

PDKP-Steppe

KerinidoiMoragravēs

-------------------

P-Steppe

Moragravēs

*i

eii < *ĭ, ij < *ī

-------------------

*p

p

*u

ou<*ŭu, uw <*ū

-------------------

*b

b

*e

ee

-------------------

*ph/φ

pf

*e1η

ēe

-------------------

*bh

*αe2

awo []

-------------------

*t1

t

*a

a [a]a

-------------------

*d1

d

*o

ōo [o]

-------------------

*t2

T

ŏ []

-------------------

*d2

*ai

aeai <*aei

-------------------

*th/s

c

*eu

eo <*eou*eu >*y > u

-------------------

*dh/z

Z

*ei

eiei

-------------------

*tj

č

*e1uηu

ēu*eu >*y > u

-------------------

*dj

ĵ

*e1iηi

ēiei

-------------------

*k

k

*e2u

awuau

-------------------

*g

g

*e2i

awiai

-------------------

*kh/x

kx

*au

auo

-------------------

*gh

*ui

uwiy

-------------------

*l

l~ł

*ou

owuu

-------------------

*

r

*oi

oe <*oeioi

-------------------

*m

m

*iu

eu < *eiuy

-------------------

*n

n

 

 

-------------------

ŋ

Sanu:*V# > i, u (vowel harmony)

Labial Dental /Alveolar Palatal Velar

Plosive p b t1 d1 tj dj k g

t2 d2Affricate pf bβ c Z č ĵ kx

|{Aspirated ph bh th dh kh gh

{[1]

|{SSpirant φff vββ θ s z x γ

Nasal m n ŋ

Liquid l,r

 

development of consonants:

 

 

Note::

The t1/t2, d1/d2 distinctions are placed to account for the phonemic dentals and alveolars of Proto-Drydo-Udra.

Note:: the Greek symbols t, d, v, z are used to transliterate the symbols used in writing Salor, which used the symbols for Čal dentals instead of the Salanjan alveolars, which were used in the symbols ti, di (used for /č/, //, or Alveo-palatals [t], [d]?; the latter would explain why the Salanjan symbols , were not used)

Note::

The ph/f, bh/v, etc. of Arēsd are indications of the differing pronunciations: ph, bh for the aristocracy, f, v for the masses.

 

Nominal declension: (The Animate~Inanimate distinction is shown in the Nominative, Dative, Ablative, and Locative by an e~a distinction)

sg. pl.

Nominative -sz -ai9aszl-s -aias

Genitive -e21ēg) wgn -ēgłu/-Vo so -?

Accusative -ozre2mosze1mēŋ -ozruosuozēŋł

Dative -ŋ -ŋł*

Ablative -d -dl

Locative -nd -ndl

 

 

*the Dative Singular in is cognate to the Drydic postposition ana, as is the -an- section of the Locative.

(note: a Dative case exists in all of the daughter languages, but the forms are resistant to comparison; this is chiefly Arēsd, which has the Dative only in the pronominal and definite [which are really clictic pronouns] declensions)

 

The stem vowel system, evident in Proto-Drydo-Udra, is also present in Salor, Arēsd (where the stem vowel and case ending are still seperable), and, at least for the o-stem version, in Kerinidoi.

 

Conjugation:

S (D) P

1 -(e)mηŋ (-) -Vemel)ηuw

2 -esη (-) -?????ekwur

3 -etη (-) -Ventη

 

Tenses

1.      Imperfect: βε-

2.      Aorist: -eli-

3.      Perfect: reduplication

4.      Future: uwm-

5.      Pluperfect: reduplication, -eli-

6.      Future Perfect: reduplication, uwm-

 

Moods

1.      Subjunctive: ijm-

2.      Optative: Vowel reverses backness

3.      Conditional: Optative + at

 

 

 

AAffixes

1.      la- causative

7.      la- causative

8.      os- augmentive

Kerinidoi developed a nasal length distinction (surviving in the Alasol languages) that may or may not have been present in PDK.

Kerinidoi also developed a Animate/Neuter distinction, in opposition to the 3-gender systems of Drydic, Udra, and Lan; this system almost completely overtook the Kerinid nominal system, resulting in a system in which the only case-form differences are between Animate and Neuter. See the Kerinidoi grammar file for more details.

 

Derivitation

The roots*čīgou- 'kill' and o\eigu- 'die' show a old alternation of C(Vmid)VCV- and CVC(Vmid)V- in differentiating roots; this shows up only rarely in the iffaraxtī archives, suggesting that it was a Drydo-Kerinidoi innovation (these type of roots are not present in the Central branch of the Raskal family, renforcing this interpretation)

 

 

 

Lexicon:

*aies-al 'to go'

*areīisze1ēz- 'master'

*-- 'infix, no special meaning'

*d1riuode1z- 'person; pl., people'

*euoti 'if' (present only in Kerinidoi, Lan, and Salor, and the Central languages)

*lianueū-z 'a small, yellow bird'

łiaz, łz *lkianii- 'slave'

(ă stem in Salor-Arēsd; present only in Lan, Kerinid-Alasol, where Lan has a ē-stem)(Moragravēs łiaz, łz)

*-os- 'augmentive affix'

Drydic -ōs- 'augmentive suffix'

 

*pamo-: oz 'stream; that which is used for navigation'

Drydic pamos 'river/stream'

Kerinidoi pamos 'street'

*re1ēgal-: 'to rule'lead into battle, rule'

*čtjūuw-al 'to eat'

 

*čīijgoual-: 'kill'

*čo\eigu-: die (Salor and Arēsd show *e; Drydo-Udra and Kerinidoi show *o)

*ŋŏie-: 'round'

*rūuw-: 'large'

*ūuwr-: 'big'

*kīijs-: 'small'

*βer-: 'blue'

*latčsj-: 'green' (*lac- in PDU; lač- in Arēsd8, Kerinidoi)

ł*l )e1eŋg-al; 'walk'; leg (an ancient root, attested in Illanī, Faĵau, and Samaritik)

Salor laŋgaŭs 'leg' (and its Drydic descendants, laŋgau|s, laŋgauhaunan)

Old Kerinidoi lēŋgōre 'to go; to walk' (CL aizōre)

Old Lan łāŋos 'walking/going (pres.part)', inf. aizans

se2ē-: '1'

kaŋn-: ' 2' {Drydic: kanam: duo, in tandem}

ph/flūuw-: '3'

rau-: '4'

ph/flauwkaŋ-: '5'

dhj(ē-: '6'

zaŋ-: '7'

raurau-: '8'

kh/xīiju-: '9'

de2ēge1ell-: '110

Appendix: Dative cases for o-stem nouns, Singular and Plural

 

*lkiani- 'slave' (ă stem in Salor-Arēs)

ertoun-auv: the area of the Salanjan Empire the Salor inhabited; the modern Drydic orakēlēk seuŋos, the march of orakēlos; the Salor had a fully Lesbian priesthood, which accounts for the high amount of respect accorded the local Lesbian community; indeed, the local Drydic dialect has some features that can only be explained by Salor substratum. These include /εrtounauos/, (stem /εrtounau-/) the name of the region (obviously from the Salor lexeme, assimilated to the greater Drydic pattern), a general oblique ending in /-erouas/, which has no cognate in any languages save Arēsd and Salor, where in the latter it is the oblique ending, and in the former it is a form from a non-standard dialect which also uses it as an oblique case-form.'

 

βεl 'to be almost finished' +Loc. ,

śuwal 'to be going'

 

 

dŏč śeipfet ĵβez

<be-(Pres.1st sg.) conquer(Pres.3rd sg.) who(an. nom. sg.)>

I am the great man.

εłčīent drēigdasazl śeipfal śrēgōzēŋł

<have(Pres. 3rd pl) people-(gen)-sea conquer(inf) rgg(Acc.)>

The Sea-Peoples have (some) great ships.

 



[1] the aspirates are placed to account for the asprate stops of Arēsd, which are cognate to the spirants of the other languages.