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Born: ēne scine ceindgere

Hī is ālsow āne greite Mnes lōrde, nd hōld-es cōrt-im in his hāl-um bitwīn um Mist-um Maunten-um nd Mircwud-ū. Hētes ālar īvelar iŋar, s is scōnes bai his fait-ing-ar t an Faiv-an Armi-an Btl-ū.

Hwen an dworfan e trūpe nd Hābbites nd Gandālfes rīht-en em Ceroc-im īglumwi, Gandālf sεdes his ŏt-nεsc-im stē-en not eumwi, nd līdes εm Born-es haus-ū, Born-es nōt-fē-em is scōnes bai Gandālfes nīd tric-en him rū mēcende ar dwōrfar cume evrīar tūar smāl-taim-iŋar) t mēdēs Born-im mōr-im iŋ-elarm-im in ū stōrī-ū.


Fārover-ū ūm mistī-um Maunten-ūm cōld-ūm

<Far over the Misty Mountains cold>

Tū hōld-pēin-plēis-ar dīp-ar nd cvern-ar old-ar

<To dungeons deep and caverns old>


Nom. -(e) -as

Acc. -im -ar

Dat. -um

Gen. -(e)s -an





Nom. -e -eg -as -asc

Acc. -im -imi -ar -ari

Dat. -u -ug -um -umi

Gen. -es -esc -an -ani

Masculines and Neuters have merged, creating a binary m.:f. opposition. the feminine endings are derived from the masculine by the addition of */-j/, which either surfaces as a palatal approximant [j], a vowel [i], or palatalises the preceeding consonant (e.g., *sj> sc)




1st person


Nom. ai

Acc. us

Dat. mīu usum

Gen. mai aur



2nd person


Nom. ī

Acc. au

Dat. ū gūm

Gen. ai gōr



3rd person


m f m f

Nom. shīo hai/ē hag/eg

Acc. him shimi him/εm himi/εmi

Dat. hu shui hu/eu hui/ewi

Gen. hiz shizh hiz/εr hizh/εri

the alternate forms for the plural are derived not from Old English, but from the Scandanavian pronouns that replaced hīe, etc.


Verbs: pronominal determiners are used where the inflections do not distinguish the person (the plural inflections). The 2nd pl. is not used as a polite singular, only as a plural.

inf. -e

S P Subj. S P

1st -(e) -e -ea

2nd -st -e -est

3rd -(e)s -e -ēs


Pret. stem +:

S P Subj. S P

1st -(e) -e -ea

2nd -st -e -est

3rd -(e)s -e -ēs


Future: Present participle, with wilen conjugated:

S P Subj. S P

1st wile wile wila wilē

2nd wilst wile wilest wilē

3rd wiles wile wilēs wilē


bīen-to be

S P Subj. S P

1st m ara eam arē

2nd ārt ara āest arē

3rd is ara gēs arē

Pret: S P Subj. S P

1st was wre wea

2nd wast wre west

3rd waes wre wēs


gwen- go

S P Subj. S P

1st goe

2nd gost gest

3rd gōs gēs


hven- to have

S P Subj. S P

1st hf hava hvea havā

2nd hast hava hvest havē

3rd hs hava hvēs havē

Pret. S P Subj. S P

1st hade hada hadea hadē

2nd hatst hada hadest hadē

3rd hades hada hadēs hadē


caen- can

S P Subj. S P

1st can cana canea canē

2nd canst cana canest canē

3rd canes cana canēs canē

Pret S P Subj. S P

1st cude cuda cudea cudē

2nd cutst cuda cudest cudē

3rd cudes cuda cudēs cudē


Present participle: -ende(g)

Preterit participle: frequently in geen(i); e.g., cilen gecilen

Gerund: -iŋ


bai by +Acc.

-wi with + Dat.

ŏt-nεsc intention

sē-en to say, Pret. sed-

fait-ingi - preformance

īgl(e) eagle

lūde-lewd (OE l#wede)

iŋ-elarmi - interest

iŋ-elarmi-en to interest



wilen will, Pret. wud-

bīen be; Pret. ws- (sg. was-, pl. wer-)

not-fēi - distrust

smāl-taim-iŋi - minute

εr- there

εrebaut(s)-near that place

εrfter- post illō tempore

εrbai- by that means

εrfor- consequently

εrin-in this/that place

εrinfter-afterwards in the same document

εrev- of this/that

εrtū-to this/that

εrepān-upon this/that

εrwi-with this/that; hōcum/illōcum

is- this

ai- I


- you (pl.)








Standard Modern English Translation of the Passage above:

Beorn is a great Lord of Men, and he holds court in his halls between the Misty Mountains and Mirkwood. He hates all evil things, as is shown by his preformance in the Battle of the Five Armies.

When the troupe of dwarves, Hobbit and Gandalf reached the Carrock by means of eagles, Gandalf told them his intentions to not come with them, and leads them to Beorn's house, Beorn's distrust is shown by Gandalf's need to trick him by making the dwarves come every two minutes. This made Beorn more interested in the story.