Proto-Drydo-Udra

Notes:: an = indicates a compound boundary

a signifies a stem vowel separate form the root and the case ending

Sounds:

i ĭ y ў *u *ŭ

*yˉ

* *r

*ē *e *o

* *˘

 

 

Labio-Velar

Bilabial

Labio-Dental

Dental

Alveolar

Palatal

Velar

Uvular

Glottal

Plosive

kw

p b

- -

ŧ1 đ1

t d

tj2 dj2

k g

q -

?

Spirant

-

-3 β

f v

1 1

s4 z4

x

- -

h -

Lateral

-

- -

- -

- l

- l

 

Rhotic

- -

- -

- -

- -

- r

 

Nasal

-

m m

- -

- n

- n

- -

- ŋ

 

Glide

w

-

- -

-

-

j

 

 

Note #1:

*ŧ > *

*đ > *

These changes initally occurred only intervocalicaly, but later all dental plosives spirantised.

 

Note #2:

*tj > *c

*dj > *

These sounds originally represented palatalised alveolar plosives, which, after going through affricates *č *ĵ, acquired the force of full palatals. In Drydic the palatals became fronted velar stops, which have various actual pronounciations in the Drydic dialects.

 

Note #3:

The voiceless bilabial fricative [] has been acquired by Drydic, Udra, Lan, and Eastern Drydic by assimmilation from both *f and .

 

Note #4:

*sj > *

*zj > *

The Alveolars s & z were palatalised before a front glide *j.

There also existed a rhotacised sound *zR, which turned into a fricative trill , which in turn became a trill *r (in some dialects), except in Eastern Drydic and Highland Udra, where the fricative trill derhotacised to a spirant z.

 

*V1V2 > **V2, unless *VV.

e.g., *ĉīgo- > Drydic čīgŏan, die.

::Nominal Declensions::

a-stems

sg pl

Nom. -a-s -a-j

Gen. -oi -a-lu

Dat.-Loc. -a-ī -˘-ns

Acc. -un* -ō-s (by analogy with the 2nd declension)

 

*The *-un is somewhat problematic, as Salor shows a -m in the Accuasative singular of a-stems; consulting Arēsd just begs the issue, as its Accusative singular is (z)εn, but there final *m and *n collapsed into n.

 

 

o-stems

sg pl

Nom. -o-s -a-Z (a fully consonantal version of j, later changing to z)

Gen. -˘k -o-lu

Dat.-Loc. -a-ī -˘-ns

Acc. -e-m -ō-s

 

u.o-stems (a mixture of o-stems and ū-stems; this mixture is equivilent to the -au- stems of Salor)

sg pl

Nom. -uo-s -ijazR

Gen. -˘k ū-lu

Dat.-Loc. -a-ī -˘-ns

Acc. -uo-e-m -ijazR

 

i-stems

sg pl

Nom. -s -īj1

Gen. -i-o -i-lu

Dat.-Loc. -a-ī -˘-ns

Acc. -i-m -īj1


e-stems

sg pl

Nom. -s -ēj[1]

Gen. -e-o -e-lu

Dat.-Loc. -a-ī -˘-ns

Acc. -i-m -ēj1

 

n-stems

sg pl

Nom. -ns -eins

Gen. -on -en-lu

Dat.-Loc. -a-ī -˘-ns

Acc. -en -ein

 

m-stems

sg pl

Nom. -m -em-s

Gen. -om -em-lu

Dat.-Loc. -a-ī -˘-ns

Acc. -mem -em

 

r/zR-stems

sg pl

Nom. -r/zR -zRēzR

Gen. -or/zR -ir/zRu

Dat.-Loc. -a-ī -˘-ns

Acc. -˘r/zR -r/zRē

 

l-stems

sg pl

Nom. -s -īl-s

Gen. -iol -el-lu

Dat.-Loc. -a-ī -˘-ns

Acc. -i-l -īl

 


ū-stems

sg pl

Nom. -u-s -ū-s

Gen. -ūo -ū-lu

Dat.-Loc. -a-ī -u-ns

Acc. -o-m -ū-s

 

Adjectives

 

Declension 1

Sg Pl

f m n f m n

Nominative -as -os -uos -ai -aZ -ijazR

Genitive -oi -˘k - -alū -olū -

Dative-Locative -ai - - -˘-ns- -

Accusative -un -˘m -uom -ōs -ōs -ijazR

 

Declension 2

Sg Pl

f m n f m n

Nomimative -s - -en -aj -ūs -ijāzR

Genitive -iol - - -lū - -

Dative -ai - - - ˘-ns- -

Accusative -un -ēm -uom -ōs -ōs -ijāzR

 

Comparitives

-īnna- plus the following endings:

Sg Pl

f m n f m n

Nomimative -s - -en -aj -ūs -ijāzR

Genitive[2] -io/-eo - - -lū - -

Dative -ai - - -˘-ns- -

Accusative -un -ēm -uom -ōs -ōs -ijāzR

 

Superlatives

-irr˘l- plus the following endings:

Sg Pl

f m n f m n

Nominative -as -os -uos -ai -aZ -ijazR

Genitive -oi -˘k - -alū -olū -

Dative-Locative -ai - - -˘-ns- -

Accusative -un -˘m -uom -ōs -ēs -ijazR

 

 

Pronouns

1st Person

Sg. (*mō-) Pl. (*nō-)

Nominative ūla nō-s

Genitive mon nō-lu

Ablative ml nō-l

Dative nō-ū/nō-nus (the later Locative form)

Accusative ūlēm nō-ēs

2nd Person

Sg. (*sō-) Pl. (*kō-)

Nominative sa kō-s

Genitive son kō-lu

Ablative sl kō-l

Dative sū kō-ū/kō-nus (the later Locative form)

Accusative sū-lēm kō-ēs

 

3rd Person (stem *tō~ā-)

Sg. Pl.

f m n f m n

Nominative ta to tai tuī tuzRa

Genitive toi tai - tālu tōlu -

Ablative tō-l - - tō-l/ tō-ūzRos

Dative tō-ū - - [3]-˘ns- -

Accusative tun tēm to tō-ēs - tuzRa

 

Verbal conjugation

Levels of evidentiality:

1. -- seen by the speaker

2. -˘l- seen by someone else

3. -- not seen, but probable (in opposition with the optative mood, which it cannot occur with.)

Moods:

1. -e- indicative

2. -ā- subjunctive

3. -i- optative (in opposition with the 3rd level of evidentiality, which it cannot occur with.)

Tenses:

1. -ek- Future Simple (Drydic Future Imperfective)

2. -ekelī- Future Perfect (note: the construction of as + the Future is also very common in Udra, Eastern Drydic, Highland Udra, and even Lan, but not Western Drydic)

3. -b(e/a/i)- Imperfect, Imperfective Past Simple

4. -elī- Present Perfect (Perfective); Drydic Perfect (Preterit)

5. -elīb(e/a/i)- Pluperfect (note: the construction of as + the Aorist or the Present Perfect is also very common in Udra, Eastern Drydic, Highland Udra, and even Lan, but not Western Drydic)

6. elas- Aorist (also formed with reduplication, with vowel height raised one step); only surviving as an Aorist in Udra, Eastern Drydic, and Highland Udra; merged with Pluperfect in Western Drydic, and took over the functions of the Pluperfect in Lan.)

from the Aor. affix in *el- plus the temporal conjunction *as.

 

Uses:

Tense/Aspect system

Present Past Future

Imperfective Present Imperfect Future

Aoristic (none) Aorist Future

Perfective Present Perfect Pluperfect Future Perfect

Narrative system:

Aorist

|

| | |

Plu. Perf. Imperf. Pres Future Future Perfect

| | | | | |

 

Personal Endings:

 

 

Active

 

 

Middle

 

 

Passive

 

 

 

sg

du

pl

sg

du

pl

sg

du

pl

1st

-Vm?

-Vsu

-Vmūl

-Vmai

-Vswai

-Vmēn

-VmazR?

-VswazR

-VmuzR

2nd

-Vs?

-Vtēl

-Vts

-Vsai

-Vtlai

-Vtsai

-VsazR?

-Vtelo(zR)

-VkwezR

3rd

-Vt?

-Vmkw

-Vnt˘

-Vtai

-VmkwuzRai

-Vntai

-VtazR?

-VmkwuzR

-VntūzR

 

 

If you will notice, the Middle endings are, for the most part, derived from the Active by the addition of ai; the <> stands for a vowel that elides when there is a vowel in the next syllable; the exceptions to the derivitation of the Middle are *-Vmēn and *-VmkwuzRai, of which the former is completely different, and the latter is derived from the Passive by the addition of ai.

 

Active

1st -Vi

2nd -Vo

3rd -Vm

The above endings are used by Drydic as the only Active singular forms. They occur in Lan as the intransitive singular endings, along with another set for dual and plural.

 

Infinitives:

Present:

Active: -?(the Dative case provides the active infinitive; Drydic and Lan take the Plural Vn(s), Udra, Eastern Drydic and Highland Udra take the singular -ai)

Middle: -ein (Drydic and Lan do not have a middle, so this is sooner a

Proto-Udra form)

Passive: -ēm, -Vm (for the Drydic am, -em)

Aorist:

Active: elas-/stem/-?

Middle: elas-/stem/-ein

Passive: elas-/stem/-ēm, -Vm[4]

(Plu)perfect:

Active: -əlī

Middle:-elī-ein

Passive:-elī-ēm, -Vm

Future:

Active: -ek-?

Middle: -ek-ein

Passive: -ek-ēm, -Vm

The Future Perfect infinitive is formed with the Future Infinitive plus the adverb

as.

The Imperfect Infinitive, which is conciously avoided if possible, is constructed

with as + the present infinitive; it is avoided most of the time because of its

extreme ambiguity with the Present Infinitive.

Participles:

Present: /stem/ + -as, -os, -uos.

(Plu)Perfect: /perf. stem/ + -ezRas, -ezRo, -ezRuos.

Aorist: /aor. stem/ + -(e)lis, -(e)lis, -(e)len (3rd [i-stem] decl.)

Verbal affixes:

1.keī- negating prefix; in Drydic written <kē-> [keI]; Udra <keī-> [keI]

 

 

Lexicon:

*aadĕk-aj: the Aadeks

*ais-: to go

*agein-o-s: lamb

*alt-os-a-s: 'stream-augm.', river

*beh{(~ē}ker-:love/life; is a noun-verb stem

*ber-a-s, -o-s, -uo-s:white

*burzRiđ- to cut

*de-gălăst-: attack (give fighting)

*dēŭĭd-i-z=dom-a-s: temple

*dēŭĭd-z: god

*dŏtj-:to be

*-ga/-ssē instrumental postpositions, interchangable.

*gazRik-:to sleep

|*kreŭhor-r/zR: raw flesh (alternate declension; went to r-stems in S(W)D and SU; many dialects have o-stems)

|*kreŭh- : eat messily

|*kruh- : gorge All of these roots point to an old root *kreŭh-

|*kruhβ-a-s, -o-s, -uo-s : bloody

|*kruhīastor-r/zR: Megalania

*pām-o-s: stream; that which is used for navigation

*-Vd: singular Ablative postposition for nouns

*-ūzRos: plural Ablative postposition for nouns

*tsjīgo- kill(tr.)

*xep- home, patria

*ap at/near (Loc. postp., used in place from constructions)

*ŋŏi- round

*đrū- big

*đūr- large

*kīs- small

*βĕr- blue

*latj- green

*vai-(adv) therefore

*wē-through (postp. + Loc.)

 

*dur-strong

*dur, - after all, ; for

*durana-s, -o-s, -uo-s-large

*ĵy-a-s, -o-s, -uo-s-young

*ĵva- when

*ĵvax- whenever

*ĵvẽ, ĵvẽk, f,- what?

*ĵvēx, ĵvēkex, f,- whatever

*ĵvĩ-where? (Locative used as an adverb)

*ĵvĩx-wherever?

*ĵvdda-how? (Ablative-Instrumental case structure used as an adverb)

*ĵvddax-however?

*ĵvũ- how much? (pronominal Dative used as an adverb)

*ĵvũx- however much?

*ĵvg- why? (pronominal Instrumental used as an adverb)

*ĵvgx- whyever?

*ēbom--drip, flow out (when drip, it is a verb, when flow out, it is a adposition with the locative of movement)

*-ĕn- postp. in, on with acc.

*-ēn-postp. into with dat.

*erm-a-s, erm-o-s, erm-uo-s-fierce, furious, mad

*es-- eat

*ēvase-- echo

*faĵva-s, -o-s, -uo-s- any, anyone

*faĵva- anytime

*faĵvē, faĵvēk, f,- anything

*faĵvĩ-anywhere? (Locative used as an adverb)

*faĵvdda-by any means (Ablative-Instrumental case structure used as an adverb)

*faĵvg- any reason? (pronominal Instrumental used as an adverb)

*faralt-uo-s, -(k, m.-trading post

*far--to live (at/on/in a place)

*fessalest-a-s, -oi, f.-nature

*fŏra--to cover (item being covered is in the Ablative with the postposition a; item covering is in the Locative)

*geŋik-a-s, -oi, f.-unit; kearor geŋikas, lit. 'the hand's unit', story, plans

*geriana--buy (w/ Dat.) {Present Participle Genitive in -eo}

*gatsjal--to take

*īkul!-(in1terj) you are going to die, BITCH!!!

*īkur!-(interj) you little SHIT!!!

*ĭfel-a-s, -oi, m.-friend(ly)

*hwalan-a-s, -oi, f.-the animal that the Wargs prey on the most often

*kata-to get, manage (as barely get), with an čan, 'to manage to get' (takes an -ī- for the optative)

*kẽr-a-s, -oi, f.- nothing

*krs-never

*kerg-no reason

*ktas-sometime

*ketg-some reason

*kłail--to do; to manage (as in sense of 'to do') [slightly different meaning that akun-]

*koi-if (can take the Conditional or the [regular] Optative [with which it notes a result clause; this is the sole item that consistantly distinguishes the conditional Optative from the normal Optative]).

*kra-s, -o-s, -uo-s- no one

*krī-nowhere

*krōdda!-no way!

*krū-none

*k9ani--to smell

*jan-lately, (used also as an adverb of degree of happening, where it indicates 'barely')

*xeĵva-s, -o-s, -uo-s- everyone

*xeĵvẽ, xeĵvẽk f.- everything

*lakuer-o-s, -(k, m.-lake, pool

*l- he himself

*lir-but

*-nā (clitic)-coupola; PDU only, no trace in Kerinidoi, Salor, or Arēsd8.

*ŋŏi-a-s, -o-s, -uo-s- round

*-os--full of, augmented

*okul(-en)-a-s, -oi, f.-girl

*orla-at that time, then

*orra- at this time, now

*orelī-there

*orelōdda-(in) that way (Ablative-Instrumental case structure used as adverb)

*orelog-by that way

*orelū-that much

*orẽr-this thing?

*orī-here

*orōdda-thus

*orog- by this reason

*orū-this much

*o-a-s, f.- land; oγ-a-s pam-(k, valley

*ozjn-a-s,m.-story

*pam-o-s, -(k, m.-river {from PDK *pam-o-s}

*raian-a-s, -oi, f.- cry (arag-ō-lu raian-a-s, the howl of the wolves)

*rēb-to have ____ done (the action is in the Gerund)

*rēk-a-s, -o-s, -u-o-s-little

*samer-a-s, f.-Sameria, homeland of the Aadek

*satē-powerfully

*sn- (adv) so that (+ subj.); in order to (+opt.)

*sor--leave; with the causative, capture {Present Participle Genitive in -eo}

*sjor-r, f.-passage

*sjai-then (adv.); like (+adj., suffixes to adective)

*sjan-how; sjan sjan, reduplicates the meaning of the following verb

*seuŋ-o-s, -(k, m.-a feudal march (as in a march of land); same as German mark

*sjoun-zR, n.-business deal

*tō~ā- he~she~it~they

*teran-uo-s, -(k, n.-care (as in cares of the world)

*kta-s, -o-s, -uo-s- some

*ktī-someplace

*ktōdda-somehow (Ablative-Instrumental case structure used as adverb)

*tsjeigu- die

*tsjor-r, n.-wood; also verbal stem



i 1 This form is pure conjecture, as the i-stem Nominative/Accusative plural used in Drydic, Udra, Lan, and Standard Eastern Drydic is the ū-stem plural (with a few 'irregulars' in -īj): however, they are based on good data, as the Highland Udra dialects, in a rare departure from Standard Eastern Drydic forms, have all plural Nominatives and Accusatives (except the r-stems) in Vj, with the stem vowel in the Nominative, and -j in the Accusative. These forms are also present, to some degree, in nonstandard northwestern varieties of E

astern Drydic, chiefly those that share the lack of a /b/~/β/, /d/~/z/, and /g/~/γ/ di

stinction.

[3] the Genitive forms for the Superaltive are, F: -io/-eo; M: -ij˘k/-io

g