Salanja:

A semi-satisfactory grammar

Sounds

Bilabial Lab-Dent Dental alveolar pal-alv palatal velar uvular glottal

Stop/Affricate p b - - - - t d č ĵ - - k g q g[1] /

[Stop aspirated ph bh - - - - th dh - - - - kh gh qh gh 1 - ]

Nasal m - - - n - - - њ - ŋ - -

Fricative φ β f v θ s z - x - - h

Lateral - - - l

Trill [b][2] - r

Vowels:

Schwa is symbolized by e.

Semivowels:

j w

 

Morphology

Case

Full Form
Clitic Form[3]

Nominative

-

 

Genitive

-ha[4]/-xa

-x

Accusative

-za

-z

Dative

-ma

-m

Partitive

-θa

Translative

-au

-aw

Inessive

-ran

-rn

Elative

-los

-los

Illative

-as

(lacking)

Adessive

-uś

(lacking)

Essive

-kaṣau

(lacking)

Ablative

-ōd

-ōd

Allative

-њa

-њ

Abessive

-adź

-

Comitiative

-atl

-tl

Prolative

-san

(lacking)

Exessive

-θau

(lacking)

Compositive

-vo

(lacking)

Locative

-kwe

-kwe

Adverbial

-r

-r

Instrumental

-santl

-sntl

Case usage is as follows:

Case

Meaning

Addenda

Nominative

Subject

N/a

Genitive

possession by objects that cannot use the personal affixes (these are very rare); with Partitive, Partitive Genitive; denotes X in 'X composing Y'

N/a

Accusative

Direct Object

N/a

Dative

Indirect Object; taken by verbs of giving, showing, helping, telling, and narrating.

N/a

Partitive

Partial Object; equivilant of Eng. 'some'; sometimes is the subject form in certain clauses

Required by choosing verbs, and some verbs of motion.

Translative

Result of a transition; or translation

N/a

Inessive

Within, in close contact with

N/a

Elative

Movement from within

N/a

Illative

Movement into

N/a

Essive

As

N/a

Ablative

Movement from

N/a

Allative

Movement to

N/a

Abessive

Without (not having)

N/a

Comitiative

With (having)

N/a

Prolative

Through

N/a

Exessive

An amount of

A bit vague

Constructive

Construct form (to borrow the Semitic term)

Used in combinations, and, with the Genitive, shows composition of the previous word

Locative

At

N/a

Adverbial

Forms adverbs

Special

Instrumental

Indicates the instrument of the verb.

Prolative +Comitative

 

In Salanjan, any noun can have up to three affixes attached to it.

/stem/+1class+2class+3class

1 class:

Number slot:

-Vf-: dual

-Vm-: trial

--:paucal (a small number, greater than 3)

-Vn-: plural

2 class:

possessor slot:

--:1st sg-"my"

-x-:2nd sg-"thy"

-s-:3rd sg-"his/hers/its"

-θ-:1st du-"of we two"

-l-:2nd du-"of you two"

-p-:1st pl-"our"

-t-:2nd pl-"your"

-q-:3rd pl-"their"

3 class:

case endings

Verbs

The Salanja verb is a finicky thing. As with the nouns, the plural formant is optional, but the sufixes are strange, and they are what make this language and her relations unique. Also, Noun affixes can be attached to verb stems to produce different meanings or shades of meaning. Some nouns, chiefly subjects and objects, can be incorporated into the formation of the verbal suffixed form, usually occuring after the main root.

#s:

1v can have 2

2v can have 1

3v can have 1

4v can have 1

5v can have 4

6v can have 1

Affixing:

/stem/+1v+2v+jā+3v+4v+5v+6v+personal ending

Name

Suffix

Meaning\example of

Durative

#1v

-ŋka

/think/+ŋka+eghon +/fast/=this is how fast I think;

/move/+ŋka =ride

Causative #1v

-č-

produces the causative of the verb

Transitive #1v

-v-

indicates a transitive meaning; for some already transitive verbs, derives a causative

Intransitive#1v

-gr-

indicates a intransitive meaning; also others

Verbal Dynamic #2v

-allas

/fast/ + -allas =/run/

Verbal Static #2v

-enūr

/fast/ + -enūr =/be swift/

1st person

-egon (caus. gon)

I, we

2nd Person

-(amas)ap[5] (causitive -amap)

Thou, you

3rd Person

-khas (causative -kas)

He, she, it, they

Future #3v

-e()hhhhhh-

'will/shall'

Preterit (Aorist) #3v

-eβ()-

'-ed'

Present #3v

-e()-

shows the present tense seperately from the aspect system

Imperfective #6v

-agail

Action is incomplete

Perfective #6v

-ail

Action is complete

Continuous imperfective #6v

-astu; -jāstu[6]

Action is still happening

Continuous perfective #6v

-ora; -stu6

Action is done happening

Negative

agal-

Not

Intentional actional

#5v

-jānabr

Shows intent to cause the action (requires the causative)

Intentional resultative

#5v

-nabr

Shows intent to cause the result (requires the causative)

Benefactive actional

#5v

-jāal

The action benefits the speaker

Benefactive resultative

#5v

-al

The result benefits the speaker

Negative actional

#5v

-jāar

The action harms the speaker

Negative resultative

#5v

-ar

The result harms the speaker

Antibenefatcive actional #5v

-j; -jε6

Action benefits the listener

Antibenefactive resultative #5v

-w; -ε6

Result benefits the listener

Antinegative actional #5v

-jsun

Action harms listener

Antinegative resultative #5v

-sun

Result harms listener

Subjunctive/Conditional #4v

-mīl

may, should, would

Optative #4v

-nēl

might, infinitives in English

Imperative #4v

-њāl

Direct commands

Jussive #4v

-ŋōl

Latin Hortatory Subjunctive

 

 

Syntax

In the realm of Syntax, the Salanjan language does not rely very heavily upon word order (indeed, a great number of sentences are single words), as most of it is affixed in the word inflections. The Durative affix mostly indicates an enduring state as opposed to the unmarked static; this must be kept separate from the (im)perfective aspects. The clause <siloŋkaigoŋ kxana> siloŋkaegon kxana 'This is how fast I think' is a good example of the meaning of the durative suffix. With the causative, it denotes a related sense: siloŋkačavemegon kxanha 'this is how fast I'm making you think' whose only differences from the preceding clause are the addition of the causative -č-, the infixed enclitic Dative -avem- 'to thou', and the change of the case of fast from Nominative to Partitive. The reason behind the case shift is that the Salanjans interpreted this like the English would I am partially making you think this fast (yes, this is an awkward statement, but it gets the point across). Earlier texts have clauses equivalent to this, but they tend to add the adverbial ending r to kxanha, giving an adverb kxanhar, whose translation is perhaps best given as fastly.

 

texts:

glottalevvemoraegm vema.

glottal-ev-vem-ora-eghom.

<speak(aor.) you(cl. dat.) (Contin.perf-1st per)>

I have been speaking to you.

Horata horateqaikkz glottallos.

horata- horat-eβ-ail-khz glottall-os.

<Falcon(nom.sg) fly(aor.-perf-3rd per) Mouth(Elat.)>

The Falcon flew out of the mouth.

 

Fontalallaseqailks alakantun

fontalallas-eβ-ail-kh dalakant-un-

<come (aor.-perf.-3rd per) horde(pl.-nom.)

raskalod glottalkaraueqailks

raskal-ōd glottalkarau-eββ-ail-khs

Easternland(abl.) name(perf.-3rd per)

samu udraa.

samu-n- udra-a.

Themselves(nom.) Udra(acc.)>

The hordes who came out of the East called themselves Udra.

 

nsaradinzailks arovekarau.

nsar-adīn-eβ-ail-khas arove-kaśau

<move-comet(cl. nom.) (pret-perf.-3rd) thunder (ess.)>

The comet moved like thunder.

 

SALANJAN

The Hordes who came out of the east called themselves the Udra.

They rode terrible workhorses, and they scattered our Army.

They struck with giant blades of cold steel, destroying(opt) all resistance.

Their tongues issued forth a stream of similar sounds, but became gibberish as they spoke.

 

Saṃdhi undissolved

fontalallasaikkhaĵĵalakantun raskalōg glottallarawaikkhas

samunudraa; nsarōdveββas

nsaŋŋkajāarkhčočorpuŋqəza

in nsarakweorakhas īgaruŋka.

nsarpokaraњčjānabrorakha čoačoŋqəsantl dēsumvoa, lelīnnēlastūkhas aīgaronsazza.

 

Saṃdhi dissolved

fontal-allas-ail-khs ĵalakant-un-bhs raskal-ōd glottal-karau-ail-khs

samu-bh{s} udra-za; nsar-ōd-v-eβə-khs

nsar-ŋka-jāar-khHs čo-čorpu-n-əqə-za

in nsar-a-kwe-ora-khs īgaru-n-ha.

nsar-poka-ran-č-jā-nabr-ora-khs čo-ačo-n-əqə-santl dēsun-vo-a, lelīr-nēl-astū-khs a-īgaru-nsar-za.

 

 

 

 

Numbers:

1 dz 6 xon 11 dtozi

2 fer 7 saupel 12 fertozi

3 vak 8 naŋe 13 vattozi

4 ča 9 lari 14 čatozi

5 kit 10 tozi 15 kitozi

 

Lexicon

93 words

a-collectivising prefix

adīn-comet; used as a synonym for cloud, forcing out the original utada

(a-dī-n<*a-dī-īn)

agla-no, not; general negative particle

nsar-move

nsarakwe-scatter (+partitive) (nsar-a-kwe)

nsarpoka-strike (nsar-poka, move lightning)

axel- 'great' (bears the same relation to ghl as Latin summus does to maximus)

ar-city (prefixes self to adjectives)

ar-axel-the Salanjan Empire's capital city; near present-day city of Ar-Udraa.

arove-thunder

aśman- heaven

aśmanha ačo- heaven's blade; lightning (the early Salanjans worshipped a Thunder

God)

ačo-blade

āčoθava-mercenary army (<a-ačoθava)

ačoθava-mercenary (<*ačoθa-ava, 'traveller of the blade')

ava-traveler

čal -the Čal, inhabitants of the rock cliffs to the west of the Rhghl valley; also the rock formations which they (the Čal) live near

čo-giant

čorpu-horse

ču-ha-evening star

čuha Western; is used for the most majestic item in a given work of literature

dēsu-steel

-cloud

doraunu-sunlight|

|-from a Psal root *dos-, light, sun with suffixes *-aun physicality

dosy-sun | and *-y nominal

drēīn-lit. the people the Salanjans name for themselves

emw-prince (incorporated form ennu)

Esia-town in the foothills of the Čantai mountains, outpost of the Salanjan Kingdom; capital of a short-lived Highland Zein principality, before the new emperors extended their influence inland.

festir-celestial

fontal-go, go into

fontaŋka- come (from *fontal-ŋka)

fortriu-hello

agalove (lost in Zēīn languages)

ger-infinitive particle

glottal-speak, mouth

glottalkarau-name, call

glottalū-mouth

grai-above (adv.)

ghl- 'great', adj, takes endings for noun, which appears in the Constructive.

ĵalakant-horde

ĵain-to go

ĵaiŋka-to come (/go/ +durative)

ha-star

haθa-dī-cloud of star(s); star clusters; constellation

horata-falcon

horat-fly(v)

huw-watcher

igaru-warrior (incorporated form igā)

initiko-sky

issian-ruler

jo-queen

koly-moon

kopta-midnight

kor, (pl.)-a, -Pron., I, we (also reflexive) (alternate version *a-, which is the version that

provided the posessive infix for nouns)

korpu-hunting dog ('my hunter')

kwains-visitor

kuspi-daughter (*ku- feminine kinship affix)

khajan-found (establish) (in the Ablative, 'from the founding,' used to date after the founding of Ar-Axel; in the Illative, used to date before the founding of Ar-Axel)

khitraqa-a boar-like creature which has a speckled body

kxan-fast

lelīr-destroy

madha-morning star (from mad-ha)

maz-windspirit (air-nymph)

mi-moon

midu-moonlight

mo- child

moku-sister (from mo- + -ku, feminine kinship affix)

mori-brother (from mo- + -ri, masculine kinship affix)

mu-adult

muku-mother (from mu- + ku, feminine kinship affix)

muri-father (from mu- + -ri, masculine kinship affix)

Naγal- chief Salaњan deity

nerāŋ-legs

norkē-dawn

otans-listener; listen(v)

pa- '-er' (a elides before vowels)

paga-lover

po-river

poka-lightning

pu-hunter

raskal-The lands to the east of the Rhghl plain, which is a continuation of the massive Steppe in the center of the continent; as an adjective, used for the least

liked/respected, and is then translated as 'Eastern'

redo-dusk

rhghl-the Rhghl river

samu-3rd person reflexive Pron. (Latin suī, sibi, sē, sē)

sapa-100

silō-think

sīr-adv., in the past

symi-midday

sodum-princess

alīmar-the paradise of aol; also its largest moon (from Ancient akarian a-lī-ma-r(e),

alimar)

īn-and

onle-feral

tolaqor-tolakor, Lord of the Dead, ruler of the planet Asalunei, the Saolic equivilant of

Venus, where the aolic version of Hel is located.

śona-light

tauro-voyager

tozi-10

tel, (pl.) -Pron., thou, you (also reflexive)

udraθa-the Udra, the first invaders of the plain; later Salaњan mostly uses this as a despicative, 'outlander'

upe-wanderer

utada-cloud (lost in all except Highland Zēīn)

verian-emperor

 

PSal Imperial Salaњan AKarun Common Zein (CD, Common Drein)

*tjonales onle tiunals *oll(e)

*did- *ĵidas/ĵīdas djid *didas

*gon gona/gōna gun *gon- 'to adorn'

*futēr futēras/fūtēras futir *futr 'place'

 

Vowel minimal pairs:

a :: ā kha "thou(arch.)" :: khā "swift(ly)"

e :: ē kel "(dial.) postp. Com." :: kēl "if"

i :: ī jidas "when" :: jīdas "where?"

o :: ō gona"jewel" :: gōna "adornments, jewelry"

u :: ū futēras "where" :: fūtēras "where?"

 

Of the above pairs, the forms jidas/jīdas and futēras/fūtēras are interesting, as they come from the Proto-Salanjan *did 'time' and *futēr 'place' compounded with *as (the formant for the noun analog for interrogatives) and *Vroot:Cfinalas (the interrogative marker). The divergent form fūtēras from the expected *futēras is the result of the need to mark the difference between where and where?.

 

Proto-Salanjan Augmentive: *-nja. The final -a is obscured by the fact that later Salanjan dialects generalised all stems to CVCV, and added the vowel -a where the root had been CVC. Trisyllabic roots were almost non-existant, the main ones being *tsaulekə cliff (source of the name čal from the Northern Valley dialect (the čauleka or čle, in medieval times pronounced and written as <čal>), which lost final syllables), *βaw(o)get dog (source of Vaugr, hunting hound of the Salanjan pantheon, borrowed by the Drydo-Udra), and *tjonales feral (ollas, the wildmen)

 

 

PSal IS KS AK CZ

*tjonales onle lunnis tiunals *oll(e)

*did- *ĵidas/ĵīdas dzd di *didas

*gon gona/gōna gun gun *gon- 'adorn'

*futēr futēras/fūtēras futiras futir *futr 'place'

*atje 'feline' aśe ali atī ae

*čani- 'water' čani Čanj 'the Sea' ?? ??

*ba:l- 'priest' OS bālu 'mendicant' bl 'priest' ?? ??

*-y- product of IS y- -ui-, -iu- ?? ??

*anatja-* anaśa anala anča 'foreigner' *anča '(various)[7]'

*The word anala was used by the Ker Salanjans to denote their northern cousins, the speakers of Old Salanjan. The Imperial Salanjans used their cognate term anaśa to denote the various steppe tribes as a whole, before they learned (and came to fear) the term udraθa.

 

 

Proto-Salaњan IS AKarun CZ KS

*tj /ṣ ti sj l

*dj /ẓ di zj l

*sj t sj

*p p p p p

*b b b b b

*t t t t t

*d d d d d

č č č ts

*d ĵ d d dz

*k k k k k

*g g g g g

*s s s s s

*f

*x

*m

*n

 

 

indic. S

1 -gom

2 -khas

3 -nap

opt. S

1 -gum

2 -khes

3 -nep

 

Karun dialect:
COMITATIVE -kil (*-kel)

plurals marked with infix -ix- (verbs mark plurality with a suffixed -ix), which, containing the Proto-Salanjan vowel *i, causes the umlauts

u > y

o >

a > /e (// is usually written <e> when the symbol is not used)

e > ei

i > ī

The Standard plurality markers -m, and are used only sparingly, and the form -n is never used.

Consonants spirantise intervocalically:

Standard pad- "agentive" to pa-

St. dit "cloud" to diθ-

s>h

z>γ

p>φ

b>β

t>θ

d>

k>x

g>γ

 

Nominal

The Karun dialect kept many grammatical rules from Proto-Salanjan, while the standard of Ar-Axel changed them. These included an Ergative case system, the seperation of many case suffices from the word stem, and differing forms for the Optative.

Ergative -βa

Absolutive -

Verbs

indic. S P

1 -γom -(γ)mix

2 -xas -(x)hix

3 -nap -nφix

opt. S P

1 -γum -γymix

2 -xis -xīhix

3 -nip -nīφix

 

 

Reconstructed alternate pronouns, with related forms attested in early Čal inscriptions of

Ker Salanjan:

Rheghil: Ker:

*a śə 1st sg-"I"

*xa xə 2nd sg-"thou"

*sa sə 3rd sg-"he/she/it"

*θa dsə 1st du-"we two"

*la 2nd du-"you two"

*qa/q 3rd pl-"they"

*pa 1st pl-"we"

*ta 2nd pl-"you"

 

 

Common Salanjan and *a in Rheghil Salanjan both have the reflex a, while Ker usually preserves the distinction.

 

Ker Salanjan:

1st pers. -eγom

2nd pers. xəs, -k

3rd pers. asp, -s

 

Aorist: -əγə-

Future: -əβə-

Present Continious: -əə-

 

Cases:

Nom. -

Gen.

Acc. -zə

Dat. -mə

Part. -hə

Transl. -əu

Iness. -rən

Elat. -los

Illat. -əs

Ades. -u

Ess. -kr8(-əu)*

Abl. -ōd

All. -ni

Abes. -ədl

Com. -ətl

Prolat. -sn8

Exess. -θəu

Compos. -vo

Loc. -kwe

Instr. -sn8tl

 

*the Essive shows a form in kr8 in Ker, and inscriptions in Old Rhghl Salanjan show the addition of the Translative -au to an original -kaṣ.

Ker Salanjan [] was written as dz, and [dz] as ds.

 

ntsər: move (written /antsr/)

kvə: midnight (written /kvdz/)

pə-: agentive (ə elides before vowels)

zməu: one hundred



1 although a phoneme in early Old Salanjan, /g/ had, by classical times, effectively merged with /g/.

[2] the sound b is postulated from the description of the Intentional actional (jā)nabr, where br is described as 'r made by flapping the lips greatly with speed'.

 

[3] the clictic forms indicate a noun's use when appended to nouns that are incorporated into a verb.

[4] -ha is used after labials, dentals, and alveolars; -xa is used in all other cases.

[5] the 2nd indicative personal ending is frequently shortened to ap, especially in later Salanjan; the Causative to -map.

[6] the forms in -jāstu and -stu are late assiimilations to the greater pattern of imperfective formation, as are and .

[7] The Zein term *anča (Coastal č, Valley **anca, and Western ANKIA) refers to different peoples, the č mostly referring to the Drūl, the **anca mostly to the Udra or Dryds, and ANKIA to the Daralec.