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Čal

The Čal are related to the hill tribes of the Kerinid Empire, and their language is distantly related to the Salanjan tounge, but is tonal. Aside from that, it is a simple inflected tounge. They are a fishing race, whose economy is almost entirely dependent upon the sea. Old Čal was a complex language and was highly dialectised. Čal dialects tend to be very varied, and most if not are actually separate languages.

 

Sounds

the sounds in () are only heard on analeq Island. The /ŋ/ is sometimes heard, but is fairly rare. In this file, analek dentals will be indicated by underlining the letter, e.g. t.

Bilabial LabDnt Dnt alveolar[1] pal-alv pal velar uvular glottal

Stop p b - - ( t5 d5) t d - - c ğ k g q G ?

Affricate - - - - č

Stop aspirated - - - - - - - - - - kh gh[2] - /Gh/

Nasal - m - - n - - () - /ŋ/

Fricative B f v (s5 z5) s z () x - h

Lateral - - - - l - - (λ)

L. F. - - - - L

Approximant - - - r - - - j

The sounds for the analek (Ar. analeq) dialect correspond as follows to the Aral phonemes:

/s5/ /z5/ : /s/ /z/

// : /n/ in some positions, usually in conjunction with nasalised front vowels /ĩ/, /ẽ/.

/λ/ : // /L/

/č/ // : /c/, /č/ /ğ/, /ĵ/

/g/ : /g/, /g/

/k/ : /q/ /k/

Note: the phoneme // is usually rhotacised, and realised as a syllabic rhotic [`], as it mostly derives from Old Čal r8 in areas with almost no stress.

Tones:

ǎ [a Ž] [^|] ā [a] [a] [a]

high-low-high low-high-low mid rising* falling**

The low-high-low tone is present on Čal vowels which could be derived from Old Čal long diphthongs, namely ^ (from ), (from ), (from ), ε^ (from ), (from ), ^ (from ), and ē (from ).

*The rising tone also shows the feature /Vlong/, showing its origin in the Old Čal long vowels.

**The falling tone has the feature /Vlax/, betraying its origin in the Old Čal lax vowel system.

The diphthongs and are only found in the reconstructed Colloquial Čal of the late Imperial Age.

The most important sound changes from Old Čal are here listed:

VgV > Middle Čal VjV > Modern Čal VV

ui > u > ū (before tone)

 

 

Morphology

Tal is an inflected language, with two declensions. Each has Animate and Neuter words; The animate-neuter distinction is dying, to the profit of the animate, which descends from the Old Čal r8-stem nominative; the fact that all Čal animate Nominatives derive from the r8-stems is the fact that the r8-stems were the only declension that had a Nominative singular form that did not concide with another form.

Declension #1

Singular

Plural

Nominative

-or(A), -om(N)

-ēm

Genitive

-n

-n

Accusative

-ǎd

-ěd

 

Declension #2

Singular

Plural

Nominative

-r(A),- m (N)

-om

Genitive

-ān

-n

Accusative

-d

-ōd

 

Verbs:

The Tal verb is fairly easy, being divided into three simple conjugations.

1st Conjugation

Singular

Dual

Plural

1st

-sū

-ōn

-ŏk

2nd

L

-os

-u

3rd

-oc

-ulu

-um

Passives are formed by umlauting the first vowel of the stem towards the 2nd

Aorist: -avo-

Infinitive: -^

 

Future: -azo-

Imperative: the stem

Pass. : N/A

 

Subjunctive:-mō-

 

2nd Conjugation

Singular

Dual

Plural

1st

-sy

-#n

-k

2nd

-y(L

-s

-y

3rd

-c

-ylu

-ym

Passives are formed by umlauting the first vowel of the stem towards the 2nd

Aorist: -ave-

Infinitive: -^ (from *-, influenced by *)

 

Future: -aze-

Imperative: the stem

Pass. : N/A

 

Subjunctive:-m#-

 

3rd Conjugation

Singular

Dual

Plural

1st

-sī

-ēn

-εk

2nd

L

-es

-i

3rd

-ec or

-c

-īlu or

-y#lu

-im or

-ym

Passives are formed by umlauting the first vowel of the stem towards the 2nd

Aorist: -avi-

Infinitive: ^ (from *-)

Future: -azi-

Imperative: the stem

Passive imp: N/A

 

Subjunctive:-mē-

NOTE::-the second set of endings in the 3rd person of the 3rd conjugation are dialectal forms, and they are perfectly acceptable anywhere, but are most common on analeq (analek) island.

Examples:

Lexicon:

The most important divergent forms that occur on analeq Island are noted in this lexicon. They are the ones which must be mastered before attempting any business directly with the islanders. All non-indicative, non-imperative, and non-infinitival uses are subjunctives. 23 words.

 

bp--to sail (- conjugation; has mostly forms like the -^ conjugation)

elssn-a city on the coast that is a major trading port.

eln-^-to travel

ěspn- aspen

gharījāL-their crocidile god (analek ghrījλ)

hărL-water, stream

h$ste- in/on (prep +gen.)

hsteLūğor-an aroyyo, but much larger; exist on the desert plain above the Čal cliffs

mgr-a serpentine creature inhabiting the ocean (analek mgr)

m: world

crIt-claw (analek črIt) (Ēgitic /čeort/)

čl-the cliffs and the associated coastal regions in which the Čal live, also the Čal for themselves

kǐbu-^- to write

khysŕnān- crocodyle

fn-fishing canoe {from Illani faan, to fish} (analek făăn)

rdač-- to conquer (analek rε$dač-^)

čūr- spider

tk-^- to buy

takanō-The Čal Sea god, who assumes the form of a tornado or typhoon

tr-^- to dock (a ship)

ŋgač-^- to crush/cut (same verb in Čal) (analek has ŋg$č-ε^, with the diffiring

conjugation from an alternating infinitive in Middle Čal, and the yCC as a reflex

of *uCCa from Colloquial Čal in conjunction with the alternate infinitive vowel pattern *-ε^ that never quite became common outside of analek)

zr-a fly

/ātră-man (cognate to Hill *tura, 'man/person' through Old Čal ?atr8a)

Word beginings/consonant glyph names:

s- :flower

k- :bird

L- :spear

- :sea turtle

n- :world

a- :rice



[1] The alveolar stops and frictives of modern Čal are descended from Imperial Čal dental obstruents, which are preserved in analek.

[2] The voiced uvular and velar series of aspirates are only present in gharījāL (analeq ghrīj) and a few other lexemes, so it is probably well to analyise them as either sequences of /g/, /g/, /k/ and /h/, or as phonetic variations of the phonemes/k/, /g/, /g/; it is unlikely that they were phonemic aspirates in Imperial Čal.