The Udra Language: a short grammar

The Proto-Steppe language was somewhat changed in the passage from iffarakt to the Rhghl plain, and Drydic was the dialect which kept the most archaic features, at least the least developed of the Drydo-Kerinidoi noun and verbal systems. Udra, on the other hand, introduced farther-reaching phonological changes, has added more cases, and is in general more advanced than Drydic.



Bilabial Dental alveolar pal-alv palatal velar uvular glottal

Stop p b - - t d - - c ђ k g q (g)[1] - -

Nasal - m - - - n - - - - ŋ - - - -

Fricative φ β (s z)[2] ђ x γ - - h

Lateral - - - - - l - - - λ - - - - - -

Trill - - - - r - - - - - - - - - -

Labialised - - - - - - - - - - - - - - hw

Glide - w - - - - - - - j - - - - - -



Phonological changes from Old Udra

to #.

k to q after *ā, *ō, *ŏ, *ū, *ŭ

c to t in all positions

t to c in all positions

ђ to d in all positions

d to ђ [] in all positions, with the exception dotai 'to be'

s to in all positions; not written consistently

s to before PDU front vowels

z to in all positions; not written consistently

to word-initial, intervocalic; not consistently written

w to β in all positions (v is written initially, however)

q to g in varg (Drydic warg)

*/ to t in all positions

*kw to p in all positions, except where preceeded by a nasal, where it turns to k.

l to λ [] before palatals and front vowels

n, ŋ to [] before palatals and front vowels



Nominal Declension

1st Declension: a-stems

Sg Pl

Nominative -a -ai

Genitive -oi -alū

Ablative -ād -ūros

Allative -le -ge

Elative -est -estū

Abessive -ta -#d

Dative -ai -ns

Accusative -un -ō

Instrumental -ga -ssē

Locative -ī -nūs

Illative -īap -vaīap[3]

2nd Declension: o-stems masc.

Sg Pl

Nom. -o -a

Gen. -#k -olū

Abl. -ōd - ūros

All. -le -ge

Elat. -est -estū

Abess. -ta -#d

Dat. -ai -ns

Acc. -m

Instr. -ga -ssē

Loc. -nūs

Ill. -īap -vaīap


3rd Declension: i-stems, e-, l-, u-stems f/m

Sg Pl

Nom. -s (usually) -ū (u-stems)

Gen. -iol (from l-stems)[4] -lū

Abl. d (u-stems) -ūros

All. -le -ge

Elat. -est -estūd

Abess. -ta -#d

Dat. -ai -ns

Acc. -om

Instr. -ga -ssē

Loc. -nūs

Ill. -īap -vaīap


Sg Pl

Nom. ---- -aђ

Gen. -i_iol -lū

Abl. -i_ūd -ūros

All. -i_le -ge

Elat. -i_est -estū

Abess. -i_ta -#d

Dat. -i_ai -ns

Nom. ---- -aђ

Inst. -i_ga -ssē

Loc. -i_ī -nūs

Ill. -i_īap -vaīap


4th Declension: n-, m-stems f/m

Sg Pl

Nom. -ns/m[5]

Gen. -on/m -lū

Abl. -ūnd -ūros

All. -le -ge

Elat. -est -estūd

Abess. -nta[6] -#d

Dat. -n/mai -n/muns

Acc. -n/m

Inst. -ga -ssē

Loc. -nūs

Ill. -nī -vaīap

5th Declension: r-stems f/m/n

Nom. -r -rē

Gen. -or -irrū

Abl. -rī -ūros

All. -re -ge

Elat. -rest -estūd

Abess. -ta -#d

Dat. -rai -ns

Acc. -rem -rē

Inst. -ga -rrē[7]

Loc. -rī -nūs

Ill. -rīap -vaīap

6th Declension: uo-stems Neut.

Sg Pl

Nom. -uo -ijar

Gen. -#k -olū

Abl. -ōd -ūros

All. -le -ge

Elat. -est -estū

Abess. -ta -#d

Dat. -ai -ns

Acc. -um -ijar

Inst. -ga -ssē

Loc. -nūs

Ill. -nīap -vaīap



Declension 1

Sg Pl

f m n f m n

Nominative -a -o -uo -ai -a -ijar

Genitive -oi -#k -- -alū -olū --

Ablative -ād -ōd -ōd -ūros -- --

Allative -le -- -- -ge -- --

Elative -est -- -- -estū -- --

Abessive -ta -- -- -#d -- --

Dative -ai -- -- -ens -- --

Accusative -un -m -uom -ōs -ēs -ijar

Instrumental -ga -- -- -ssē -- --

Locative -- -- -nūs -- --

Illative -īap -- -- -vaīap -- --



Declension 2

Sg Pl

f m n f m n

Nominative -is -is -e_C -iaj -ial -ijar

Genitive -iol -ij#k -i_n#k -alū -olū --

Ablative -iād -iōd -i_ōd -ūros -- --

Allative -le -- -- -ge -- --

Elative -est -- -- -estūd -- --

Abessive -ta -- -- -#d -- --

Dative -iaj -iaj -i_aj -enel -- --

Accusative -um -em -i_uom -ijar

Locative -- -i_ī -nūs -- --

Illative -īap -- -- -vāp -- --



-inna- plus the adjective's normal endings.



-irrl- plus the adjective's normal endings.



Sg Pl

1st Person


Nom. ula nōs

Gen. mon nōlu

Abl. ml nl

All. mle nge

Elat. mest nestū

Abess. mta n#d


Acc. ulm nōs

Inst. mga nessē

Loc. nōnūs

Ill. mīap nīap


2nd Person


Nom. sa kōs

Gen. son kōlu

Abl. sel kel


Acc. sulem kōs

Loc. sī kōnūs


3rd Person

Sg Pl

f m n f m n

Nom. ta t# to tai tuī tura

Gen. toi tai -- talū tolū tolū

Abl. tel -- -- tūros -- --

Dat. tōd tūd tūl -- --

Acc. tun tem to tōs tēs tura

Loc. tī -- -- tenūs -- --

Ill. tīap -- -- teap -- --


Demonstrative/Relative Pronoun (suffix the -l- from the verbal inflection to form that)

Sg Pl

m/f n m/f n

Nom. or ors orōs ora

Gen. oris iris olu oralu

Abl. orl irōd orel oral

Dat. oru irī orū orū

Acc. orem ors orēs ora

Loc. orī irī ornūs ornūs



Verbal Conjugation


Levels of evidentiality:

1.-tī- seen by the speaker

2.-l- seen by someone else

3.- - not seen, but it is probable


1.-e- indicative

2.-a- subjunctive

3. /stem/ imperative[8]

4.-i- optative


1. -ek- Future

2. -ekelī- Future Perfect

3. -ba- Imperfect

4. -elī- Present Perfect

5. -elība- Pluperfect

6. elas- Aorist (also formed with reduplication, raising the vowel height one step)

7. la- Present Aorist (reduplicated (no vowel change), with augment regardless)

8. la-/stem/-ek- Future Aorist


Uses: Tense/Aspect system

Present Past Future

Imperfective Present Imperfect Future

Simple Occurance Present Aorist Aorist Future Aorist

Perfective Perfect Pluperfect Future Perfect


Uses: Narrative time system; Present Aorist not used

Aorist Future Aorist

_______|_____ ______|___

| | | | |

Plu. Perf. Imp. Pres. Future Fut. Perf.

| | | | | |

Personal Endings:

















































*from PDU *-VmkwuzR.







Perfect infinitive: Act.: -erai


Pass.: -erem

Pluperfect Infinitive: A: Gerund + dotai (to be)

Present Participle:

1.      stem + -a, -o, or -uo.

Perfect Participle:

1.      Perf. stem + -(a)era, -(o)ero, -(o)eruo.

Aorist Participle:

1. Aor. Stem + -(e)li, -(e)li, -(e)lin (3rd decl.)

Verbal Negative:

1. keī- prefix negating the verb

Verb Affixes:

1.-pe suffix indicating a question



The Locative of Inanimate Indirect Object of Old Udra is still present in Udra, and in fact is so widespread that in spoken Udra the Illative case, formerly used for only certain place from constructions, is now used as a general Locative, with the actual Locative reserved for the inanimate Dative.

Udra is a heavily inflected language, so word order is not a major issue; however, the unmarked word order tends to be either VSO or VOS.

The Subjunctive and Optative moods are not distinguished in English or Latin (and, indeed, the Proto-Germanic Subjunctive mood forms are actualy the Optative forms), nor in any Indo-European language that I am aware of except Greek. The usages in Udra are therefore close to the Greek usage, although not exact. In general the Subjunctive is to be translated either with so that + may, or the few subjunctive forms left in English (e.g., If Csar were here, ), other uses include expressing doubt, the Hortatory Subjunctive, and futurity; the Optative mood is used for those English Infinitives that are the descendants of Old English Subjunctives, and in order to + infinitive, and is also used when expressing wishes and desires. Conditional clauses are formed using the 3rd level of evidientiality, Perfective aspect, Subjunctive mood, with both Pluperfect and Future Perfect markers in the conditional verb, the agent of the verb placed in the Genitive, the patient placed in the Ablative (semel plus the Locative is also used). Indirect Statements are oscilating between the Subjunctive mood and the Infinitive, with all the tense distinctions evident in both (namely, future (perfect) Subjunctive). The Imperative is used for commands, and a Vocative of sorts exists as the bare stem in order so that it might be used with the Imperative. Nominative dependancies are the Subject of the sentence, and the predicate nominative with the coupola Dotai, and its compounds. The Genitive expresses possession and the partitive Genitive. The Ablatives uses are: Ablative of opposition; Ablative of Denial (with some of the prepositional verbs); Ablative of accompaniment; and Ablative of Time. Dative: Indirect object of main verb; Dative of Movement to. Accusative: Direct object of the main verb; Accusative of Distance where.

Locative: Locative of movement from; Locative of Movement; Locative of Directional Movement; Loc of Showing; Locative of Inanimate indirect object.




The words will eventually be arranged by Drydic order. The citation form is the Nominative form followed by the Genitive form.

Note::- λ represents the palatal lateral [], represents a palatal nasal [], represents a voicless interdental spirant [T], represents [A\], ђ represents a voiced palatal stop []. 176 words.

u w o a e i j y p t c k q l λ r m n ŋ b d ђ g g φ s x β z γ



aisatalīm-sail (go across water); Aisatalīm sn bheighaunsīa(m~s~t)- to go after so that (I~you~he) might strike

ageno, -#k, m.-lamb

ђeqai, -alū, m.- the Aadeks, the Continental Samerians collective name for themselves

n-and; -n postpositive (a form aktū, cognate to Drydic Attū, is attested in Old Udra)

al-beyond (with Loc.)

allanor, ----, f. -a small squat, green plant w/small yellow flowers. C.20cm tall.

{From Daraleœ aln/or, the same} (indcl.)

aiai- to go

aiūlai-go after (+ Allative)

aiōkuŋai- refl. intr. to move (aiai 'go' + -ōkuŋ- inchoative suffix); tr. to carry (something)

aiqs, aigis, m.-goat

akunai-do {Present Participle Genitive in eo}

al-beyond (with Acc. of Distance where)

aλchunai-to flow

aλca, -oi, f.- current, stream

aλcoa, ioi, f.- river

ana- at, along, towards; postp w/loc

aŋai- twist

ansīrai (prep.)- to deny (w/Abl.)

acī-against; postp w/abl

ap at/near (Loc. postp., used as suffix for the Illative case)

apaunai-take, reach

aqauc#, n.- steep coast, peninsula, cape (indcl.) [aqAU9cQ]

arago, -#k, m.-thief, highwayman; wolf

ar-araxelo, -#k, m.- Ar-Axel, the capital city of the Salanjans; it is also used for 'capital city'

arīz#r, arīz#or, m.-VIP, a person of importance (PDK *areīse1-, master)

ar-udraa, ar-udraālu, m.- Ar-Udraa, capital of the Udra kingdom

aman- heaven (indcl.)

asaqa, -oi, f.-faith

aaŋo, a#k, m.- a large coniferous tree about 2m in height, with flaky bark;

the branches curl upwards almost like a snake. {from Daraleœ afn, the same}

atonai-wait for

atala, -oi, f.- water

-(h)aunai: verbalizing stem

aa-too, basic emphatic particle, =Russ. Жэ, Greek τoι.

aīrēī-Goddess of the Sea, keeper of the Mgr (indcl.)

berg#kalonta, -oi, f.-mountain grass


bera, -o, -uo - white

berg,-#k, m.-a range of mountains, or an extremely tall one

bheighaunai- strike(trans) {from Arēsd bheig-, to strike}

bhibhro, -#k, m.-beaver{from Arēsd bhibhr-, beaver}

behēkerai-love, like (related to behēkero light) (from Proto-Drydo-Udra *behēker-,

love, light)

behēkero, -#k, m.-light (from Proto-Drydo-Udra *behēker-, love, light)

burriђan-cut; irregular verb (trans) [bUrIan]

br8ŋxa, -oi, m.- native insturment, somewhat like a sitār.

bruta/uo, -oi/-#k, m./n.-beer; bruta/-uo virōlu/dalakantālu, party of beer

drinkers, keg party

čalū, -ū, m.-the Čal, inhabitants of the rock cliffs to the west; also the rock formations which they live near {from Salanja Čal, their name for the Čal}

čepedo, -#k, m.:captain (military & nautical)

čola, -oi, f.- hooker

dajolo, dajol#k, m.-Dajol-ghl, Dryd commander of great repute

daralec, m.- the Daraleœ, a race of hunters who live in the desert that bears their name

darans, -on, n.-plateau {from Daraleœ daran, the same}

daadaniai-to drink hevily (iffaraxtī *dasa sea)

dauera, -oi, m.-pirates (collective singular; no plural, except when refering to 2 or more separate groups of pirates)

degalastai-attack (give a fight)


dei-give (more common form than dehaunai; pres. part. genitive in -eo)

dexto, -#k, m.-given (irr. Participle) (/x/ < */h/ before /t/)

deidikaunai-indicate (trans) -|

deidikiehaunai-display (intrans) -|transitive & intransitive forms of the same verb

deidikosaunein-show, point out (w/Loc of Showing)

dēuidizdoma, -oi, f.-temple (cf. Gods house)

dēuia, -oi, f.-goddess

dēuis, dēuidis, m.-god (from Proto-Drydo-Udra *dēŭĭd-z, god)[10]

dīdā, -oi, m.- fortress

dotai-to be

doma, -oi, f.- house

domai, -ālu, f.- village

doura, -o, -uo -strong

dča, -olū, m.- the Dč/Deutsch, descendants of High Germans that came to aol during the Terran Migrations [deotSaz]/[dtSaz]

drēīnīj, -olū, m.-the descendants of the ancient Salanjan Civilisation

dryda, drydolū, m.-the Dryds


dūnuo, -#k, n.-hill, mountain (smaller that berg)

dya, -o, -uo-young

dalakanta, -ālu, m.-horde


ђrūa, -o, -uo- big

ђūra, -o, -uo- large

ēem-sit (emphatic istu!)

ēβomai-drip, flow out

epo, -#k, m.-horse


ergnta, -oi, f.-silver

en-postp. in, on with acc.; into with dat.

epsoano, -#k, m.-aspen

erma, ermo, ermuo -fierce, furious, mad

esai- eat


geŋika, -oi, f.- unit

gharijāl, -iol, f.-crocodile {from Čal gharījāL their crocidile god}

gwherdiamna, -oi f.-pine tree{from Arēsd gwherdiamn-, tree of needles}

hairks, hairkeo, f/m.-a type of small rodent (originally an s-stem, was assimilated to

the e-stem pattern)

hartagga, -oi, f/m.-a bear-like creature ten feet tall at the shoulder [hartagaS]

hastelūђor-an aroyyo, but much larger; exist on the desert plain above the Čal cliffs {from Čal hasteLūğor, the same}

hwalana, -oi, f.-the animal that the Wargs prey on the most often

ikul!-(interj) you are going to die, BITCH!!!

ikur!-(interj) you little SHIT!!!

jehwot-so long as (adv) [jExwth]

karnalesto, -#k, m.-a stone ampitheater, common in the badlands of the Daraleœ Desert {from Daraleœ karnalest, the same}

ka, -oi, m.-ants

kerinidoij, kerinidolū, m.-the perple of the Kerinid Empire

kearr, -or, f.-hand

khtraqas-a boar-like creature which has a speckled body (Salanja khtraqa, the same)

kīza, -oi, f.- little thing

-kīza, -oi - diminuitive

kōs kolū-you

kreuhoro, -#k, m.-raw flesh

kruhai- eat messily

kruhiai- gorge

kruhiβa, kruhiβo, kruhiβuo- bloody (adj)

kruhiast(o)r, -or, m.-an giant monitor lizard, not unlike Megalgina

xeratoriuo, -#k, n.-empire

xepo, -#k, m.- home

lakuero, -#k, m.-lake, pool


lantaltulenai-labor, suffer

laŋgaus, -#k, m.-leg


lata, -o, -uo- green

lendh, -#k, m.-open land, a plain

levan-across (w/ loc. of Movement)

lotso, -#k, m.-salmon

magar-a serpentine creature inhabiting the ocean {from Čal mgr, the same}

marr, marior, n.-sea

mukla, -oi, m.-a small desert rodent {from Daraleœ mukl, the same}

nar (prep. w/abl.)- on

nar-rhghl, -oi, f.- Nar-Rhghl, a city on the Rhghl river.

nōs, nolū-we

nix general invective

nūl (prep)-after (w/abl)

ŋŏia, -o, -uo round

orr, oror- this

orel, orelor-that

-osa, -oso, -osuo -full of, augmented (verbal augment os-)

puka(), -oi, f.-originally 'one who deserts his friends', but now extended to use for any person/thing that makes the speaker very mad.(puča has been borrowed from Torasas in the colloquial dialects)

φns, φcis, m.-religion

φāleq, φēliqi, f.-cat[11]



polaskīj, -olū, m.-the Arēsd, a race of barbarians that ride horses the size of Wargs; they are closely related to both Dryds & Udra.

qula/kula, -oi, m.-spear

rhghl, -oi, f.-the Rheghil river

sa, son- thou

semel-out of, from; w/loc

sn- (adv) so that (+ subj.); in order to (+opt.)

imānuo, - #k, n.-ridge, boundary


aolo, -#k- aol, the Dryds' planet.

alonta, -oi, f.-prarie grass

iotno, -#k, m.-shit

otn!-OH SHIT!

tonč, tonon, m.-luck

ta, t#, to-she, he, it

ta, to, tuo-her, his, its (3rd Person adj.)

tai, tuī, tura-they


toula, -oi, f.- fire


tuλents, tuλinon, n.-stone; domas tuλinalū, quarry(n) (cf. house of stone)

eronts, eronon, m.-pterodactyl-like creature inhabiting the mountains

ula, mon- I

udraai, -olū, m.-the Udra

vai (adv.)-therefore

varg, -#k, m.- a Warg

vāsuleg-the desolation of bieng in the badlands completely alone

vera, -o, -uo- blue

vir, vir#k, m.- man; pl. band of men, group

vosta, -oi, f.-river mouth

vuγAn- to curse

vuγan tsulem!-fuck you!

datem-create;(dep. Verb)


ogost|a/ -o, -oi/ -#k, f/m.-sight (1st Decl. or 2nd Decl.)

[1] /G/ is a variant of both /q/ and /g/.

[2] s and z do not occur in Udra; they are spoken as , .

[3] The -va- affix in the Illative plural is a direct cognate to the Kerinidoi plural suffix in -vas- in the Agglutinative cases.

[4] For e-stem nouns, both masculine and neuter, the genitive is in eo; some I-stems have genitives in io, and a fair amount of former s-stems have genitives in is.

[5] The ns is for n-stems, the m for m-stems.

[6] Always n by rules of consonant assimilation.

[7] from *-r-ssē.

[8] The 1st person of the Imperative is always in the middle.

[9] (formative note): The Aorist form elas- is the original, and the Present & Future Aorists are derived from it.

[10] Archaic Nominative Dēŭidz.

[11] This noun is very irregular, and is declined as follows:

sg. Pl.

Nom φāleq φēlēks

Gen φēliqi φēlēlu

Abl φyluq φēlyros

Dat φilaik φēlēns

Acc φāleqon φēlēks

Loc φēlē φēlēkenus

Instr φēlega φēlessē