Western Zēīn

The Drēīn were the descendants of the Salanjans, and were inhabiting the entire Rhghl basin at the time of the Drydic invasion, and are still present there in large numbers. Western Zēīn is spoken in the borderlands of the Udra Kingdom, and is heavily influenced culturally by the Kerinidoi.

Sounds

Bilabial alveolar palatal velar uvular

Stop b t d tj dj k g

Nasal m n nj - - ŋ - -

Fricative sj zj

Lateral - - l - lj - ; - -

Approximant - w - - rj - -

Vowels:

Semivowels:

j w

 

 

An Agent/Patient distinction has developed, giving the language the oppourtunity to continue the varied word orders of Salanjan. (Note: all examples for Western is given in the Roman orthography of Western; all others transliterated from the Salanjan Alpahbet forms, with an accompanying phonetic transcription) {note: all varieties have an intercalcerary vowel, historically from Salanjan short ă, written A/a, with varying phonetic realisations}

Western:

Agentive: -BA [v]

Patientive: -RA []

 

Sound changes from Salanjan to Western Zēīn:

Intervocalic Salanjan t > */ > j if not part of a consonant cluster or after a nasal

The clusters /gl/, /kl/, /lg/, /lk/ >*// >/w/. *// could have been either a velarised lateral

or a velar lateral [l][1].

The clusters /gr/, /kr/, /rg/, /rk/, /qr/, /rq/ > //. (/Gr/ and /rG/ do not occur)

The clusters /tr/, /dr/, /rt/, /rd/ > /z/.

-SN- clusters (S:s:z:, N:m:n:ŋ) changed to Proto-Drēīn *-ze). This has different reflexes in the Drēīn languages.

The čj and dj of the Coastal dialect are here KI, [tSi], GI [dZi].

The opposition: :s, :z had been lost in all dialects except Western.

 

Western:

This dialect is heavily influenced culturally by the Kerinidoi, and write their language with the Roman alphabet, one Greek letter, and 3 Cyrillic letters. It is one of the many dialects that show no p/ph/f, b/bh/v, t/th/s, d/dh/z, k/kh/x, and g/gh/0 contrasts. These are stops initially and in conjunction with other consonants, and are fricatives in intervocalic positions. Proto-Zēīn *-z) here went to ZA [Z]. Salanjan -pt- clusters have changed to -UT- /-Ut-/, from Proto-Western-Zēīn *-wt-. This is the only dialect that has not lost the :s, :z opposition. The alphabet used is given here:

 

P

/p~f/

T

/t~s/

S

/S/

K

/k~x/

/T/

B

/b~v/

D

/d~z/

Z

/Z/

G

/g~γ/

//

M

/m/

N

/n~~ŋ/ according to the following consonant or vowel[2]

I

/i~j/

U

/u~w/

A

//

E

/ε~ej/

O

/~o/

L

/l~λ~l/[3]

Ω

//

R

//

Љ

/l/ syllabic

Њ

/n/ syllabic

З

/z/ syllabic

 

 

 

 

Examples:

KORBA TIR UOTALER GER BERA.

<I in the past speak to you>

I spoke to you.

TER ORAIABA TIR ORAIER TEMEL TER UOTALER

<the falcon in the past fly out of the mouth>

The falcon flew out of the mouth.

 

DZALAKANDBA TIR PONTALALAT

<horde(pl.) in the past come

TEMEL RATKALRA TIR

out of East in the past

ROIALAKARAUERMU TER UDRATRA

name/call-reflex. the Udra.>

The hordes who came out of the East called themselves Udra.

 

 

 

Lexicon

33 words.

AZAAR-move /ge-aZaa/

ADZANN- heaven

DEIN-the inhabitants of the Rheghil plain, descendents of the Salanjans

DZALAKANT-horde

PENU-son

PONTAL-go, go into /gel-pontal/

PORIU-hello

GER-infinitive particle

ORAIA- falcon

ORAIER-fly /ger-hoaje/

IS-ruler [IS]

IODZ-sister

KOR, -Pron., I, we

KUL-prep. of

KAN-fast

KIRAKA-a boar-like creature which has a speckled body

MORI-brother

-MU reflexive affix

NERAN, -ΩN-legs; plural [nεraŋn`]

NORE-dawn

ODEUS-rainbow

OITI-rain [oiti]

OKI-stormcloud

RAI-above (adv.)

RANAR-be

TA-he, she, it, they

TEMEL-prep. from, out of

TER, TERES- the

TIR-adv., in the past (forms past tense in the Drēīn tounge)

TEL-Pron., thou, you (also reflexive)

BED-king [bez]

UOTALER-speak /ge-wottale/

UOTAUARAUER-name /ge-wotawaaue/

UOTALU, -N-mouth

KUKI-noble [kutS]



[1] The change from a velarised lateral to a bilabial approximant predated the positional articulation shift of /n/, /l/.

[2] [n] occurs before front vowels, [] occurs before central vowels, and [ŋ] occurs before back vowels, and syllabic /l, z/; /n/ before /n/{syllabic} is just a dental [n].

[3] again, [l] before front vowels, [] before central vowels, and [l] before back vowels.